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Session #5 - Magyars, Vikings, and the German Drang Nach Osten.docx

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Piotr Wrobel

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25 September, 2012 MAGYARS, VIKINGS, AND THE GERMAN “DRANG NACH OSTEN”  Beginning of 7 c. – Mohammed re-established a new religion which helped the Arabic tribes to unite; energetic Arabic expansion occurred (Western borders of China and southern border of France) th th th  8 , 9 , 10 century – the most interesting city was Baghdad  Eastern Mediterranean was the most important part of Western civilization (the centre)  Contact with India and Asia was extremely important – the Arabs developed a very powerful empire ~ Powerful economy, centralized state produced its own currency (silver currency, spreading all over Europe)  Traders appear wanting to travel north of the Arabs by a new way – coming from Scandinavia (the Vikings) The Vikings  793 AD – Western world became aware of the presence of Vikings, attacking Britain  Attacked other parts – 845 plundered Paris, attacking many places in France and northern Europe  One of the French kings invited one the vikings, Rolof, to settle in Normandy in order to appease the Vikings  Western European diaspora – Vikings were crucial in the wars in southern Europe (Italy, Sicily)  Also travelled to the East  Not very many written sources The Chronicle th  Beginning of 11 century in Kiev, a monk named Nestor wrote the primary chronicle on the history of Rus’ (History of Bygone Years)  859 – the Varangians imposed tribute but so did the Khazars (on Slavic and Baltic tribes), subjugating the southern part of the Slavic circle  Discord ensued amongst the tribes – they invited the Varangians to settle there and rule  Riurik settled in Novgorod, establishing a primary settlement  To of his followers found the city of Kiev, then under control of the Khazars  Oleg, Riurik’s son organized an expedition to Kiev  Two waves of Varangian colonization – 8 , 9 centuries (first wave)  Mid–ninth century, second wave – eventually assimilating to the Slavic people (Normanic/Slavic mixture)  Even before Riurik, the Varangians travelled to Constantinople 25 September, 2012  Rus’ with a capital in Kiev had to fight off those invading from Asia – held them off until 1242 with the Mongol invasion
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