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Session #8 - The Mongolian Invasion

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Piotr Wrobel

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October 4 , 2012 THE MONGOLIAN INVASION AND ITS CONSEQUENCES  Beginning of the 13 c. ECE was quite successful, having converting to Christianity at the end of the 10 c. – the invaders had been stopped  Europe started expanding during the Age of Crusades (in the Middle East) – even Constantinople was divided by Latin crusaders; region called Romania was established  AD 1230, Kievan Rus’ was divided into many small states  In the 1230s – a new power appeared, first attacking western Asia and then moving into Europe  The Mongols established the largest empire in the history of the world (most of Asia was controlled by them)  The original habitat of the Mongols was in the steppes of Mongolia where it was very cold and difficult to survive  China was quite close and the Mongols lived in a symbiotic relationship with them (learnt from them, invaded them, etc.)  The Turkish tribes had established large states containing a federal relationship between tribes in central Asia  Genghis Khan, after uniting the Mongolian tribes, organized an invasion of China in 1211, then later subjugated Persia and moved to westward  The Mongols tried to unite all the tribes of the steppe but had difficulty with the Bulgars, Hungarian tribes, Kumans etc.  Early 1220s – Mongol expedition to do something about the Kumans, however they encountered Slavic peoples in 1223  They returned to Mongolia and did not appear for sometime – the first invasion was warning and started rumours within Europe  During the middle ages, after the fall of the RE the Roman knowledge of Asia disappeared – they knew nothing about China, India was a vague term for everything south of the Middle East  They believed that there was a huge Christian empire in Asia (rumour)  When the Mongols appeared for the first time, many Europeans believed that they were lost Christian tribes and that they would help  The Mongols had very good intelligence services, and they manipulated the rumours circulating in Europe Ex. When they invaded Georgia, they carried large crosses  This huge power proved to be not friendly at all – they fought equally against both Christian and Muslim peoples  The Mongols did not appear again until AD 1240 – this was a major invasion of Europe, an army lead by Genghis Khan’s grandson entered the continent  In late 1240, a large Mongolian army appeared in Kievan Rus’ – subjugating Rus’ and destroying Kiev October 4 , 2012  They spent the winter in Galicia and then in 1241 they went further – their main goal was perhaps Hungary (Hungarian king ha
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