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Lecture

The Worlds of Christainity and Islam.docx

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Department
History
Course
HIS102Y1
Professor
Carol Chin
Semester
Fall

Description
The Worlds of Christainity and Islam:  As the Latin west and Greek east were going into divergent paths, Islam was emerging and spreading in Africa, Europe, and Asia through Muslim conquest. Islamic expansion did not impose a uniform culture over a vast empire but claimed to a universal culture. Christainity and Islam offered a vision of common brotherhood, bringing religious sensibility to daily life and integrated disparate peoples into a community of faith. The combining of spiritial faith and with political+miliatry faith was crucial to Islamic expansion. Despite later fragmentation of states, the mixture of economy and religion of the Islamic world allowed Muslim merchants to unite the countries of Asia, Europe, and Africa. Isalmic cities became global crossroads for the exchange of goods and ideas.  Multiple Christianities: The progress of conversion throughout the territories of the old Roman Empire came at the cost of the divisions within the church itself.  The Christain Church of Byzantium: In the eastern Mediterranean, the Christain Church and clergy as a branch of imperial administration, where the Byzantine emperors used the Church to expand and reinforce there power, as well as church leaders. The tensions between secular and religious wasnt only divison, as the religious belief and practices of urban people grew out of cosmopolitan urban context but rural inhabitants sought spiritual refugee in deserts, they devoted themselves into an asetic life of physical discipline, known as the ascetic movement. The ascetics founded monasteries.  Disputes over doctrine: dispute between divinity of Jesus. Nestorius: A human woman cant give birth to the son of God + Jesus had two natures, one human and one divine; stated as heresy. Monophysite: Jesus had a single divine nature. Comprise made, but both sides committed to their views.  Justinains Imperial Orthodoxy: Shore up religious solidarity as a defense agasint Germanic invasions.  Christianity in Asia and Africa: Justinians tactics did not restore unit but widened the fractures within the Church.  Christainity in Armenia: Christianity had slowed advanced in Armenia following the conversion of its king.  Sasanid Toleration of Christianity: Nestorian Christianity enjoyed priviledge in Sasinad capital and Christianity gained foothold in Ethopia.  Rise and Fall of Axum: Thriving metropolis and central marketplace for exotic African goods. Offically recognized Christianity as state religion. Islamic conquests disrupted trade routes.  Christian communities in Western Europe:  The absence of patronage in the western provinces, unlike the those of the Byzantine emperors, allowed variety of Christian cultures to emerge.  Bishops of the west: Christian communities in Western Europe entrusted their protection to wealthy men, electing them as bishops (who took full control of religious and secular affairs).  Social and Political Renewal in the Post-Roman World:  Crisis and Survival of the Byzantine Empire: Decline of power and prestige in Byzantium, and bad relations with Rome; emperor made a council of bishops that gave him more power over Church, rejected Latin customs, and affirmed independence of Constantiople patriarch.  The Germanic Succesor states in Western Europe: Many Germanic chiefs who became overlords previously served as mercenaries defending the territories they once ruled - they were firs
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