The Worlds of Christainity and Islam:
As the Latin west and Greek east were going into divergent paths, Islam was emerging and
spreading in Africa, Europe, and Asia through Muslim conquest. Islamic expansion did not impose
a uniform culture over a vast empire but claimed to a universal culture. Christainity and Islam
offered a vision of common brotherhood, bringing religious sensibility to daily life and integrated
disparate peoples into a community of faith. The combining of spiritial faith and with
political+miliatry faith was crucial to Islamic expansion. Despite later fragmentation of states, the
mixture of economy and religion of the Islamic world allowed Muslim merchants to unite the
countries of Asia, Europe, and Africa. Isalmic cities became global crossroads for the exchange of
goods and ideas.
Multiple Christianities: The progress of conversion throughout the territories of the old Roman
Empire came at the cost of the divisions within the church itself.
The Christain Church of Byzantium: In the eastern Mediterranean, the Christain Church
and clergy as a branch of imperial administration, where the Byzantine emperors used
the Church to expand and reinforce there power, as well as church leaders. The tensions
between secular and religious wasnt only divison, as the religious belief and practices of
urban people grew out of cosmopolitan urban context but rural inhabitants sought
spiritual refugee in deserts, they devoted themselves into an asetic life of physical
discipline, known as the ascetic movement. The ascetics founded monasteries.
Disputes over doctrine: dispute between divinity of Jesus. Nestorius: A human woman
cant give birth to the son of God + Jesus had two natures, one human and one divine;
stated as heresy. Monophysite: Jesus had a single divine nature. Comprise made, but
both sides committed to their views.
Justinains Imperial Orthodoxy: Shore up religious solidarity as a defense agasint
Christianity in Asia and Africa: Justinians tactics did not restore unit but widened the fractures
within the Church.
Christainity in Armenia: Christianity had slowed advanced in Armenia following the
conversion of its king.
Sasanid Toleration of Christianity: Nestorian Christianity enjoyed priviledge in Sasinad
capital and Christianity gained foothold in Ethopia.
Rise and Fall of Axum: Thriving metropolis and central marketplace for exotic African
goods. Offically recognized Christianity as state religion. Islamic conquests disrupted
Christian communities in Western Europe:
The absence of patronage in the western provinces, unlike the those of the Byzantine
emperors, allowed variety of Christian cultures to emerge.
Bishops of the west: Christian communities in Western Europe entrusted their protection
to wealthy men, electing them as bishops (who took full control of religious and secular
Social and Political Renewal in the Post-Roman World:
Crisis and Survival of the Byzantine Empire: Decline of power and prestige in Byzantium,
and bad relations with Rome; emperor made a council of bishops that gave him more
power over Church, rejected Latin customs, and affirmed independence of Constantiople
The Germanic Succesor states in Western Europe: Many Germanic chiefs who became overlords
previously served as mercenaries defending the territories they once ruled - they were firs