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Lecture 4

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University of Toronto St. George
Robert Bothwell

LECTURE 4 - Wednesday September 20 - “second 100 years war” - 9 years war 1689-97 o William became king of England and conquered island was returned to its state as a subordinate state to England, William was a reasonable general and really good administrator o The king of England is the chief executive of the kingdom, the government is the kings government, the king had ministers but there was no prime minister, the cabinet met with the king in the chair, the king is therefore responsible for how the government is conducted o William was lucky because his powers had been formally diminhed meaning that parliament originalted and voted taxation, William found that turning to parliemnt for money, money was more freely available so in a curious way the executive in great Britain is a strengthen by the demnusion by royal power o Wlliam was the first English monarch that was able to call on substantial financial resources as his reign advanced o The war is fought between a coalition of European countries and france and france is the most powerful largest country in europe and its king Louis iv is very experienced with confident generals and avery large army so he believed that he would win this war and the rest of europe also believed this o As far as England is concerned Louis support to his catholic cousin james II was crucial, meaning that the object of the war for England was to prevent james II to come back and this accounts to the fact that the parliament was ready to give William the money he needs for the war however most of Williams allies against Louis are catholic kings this means it is a war that is domestic o The main objective was to take the power of france away because Louis had exemplified brutality throughout his preivious wars with the rest of europe o The war of 1689 did not start in north America but there were clashes in north America between the French and English prior to the war o An expedition from new france travelled up to Hudson bay in 1687 to capture the forts of the Hudson bay company this was because of the fur trade that was a staple and was the most lucrative product of new france o Fur was very important to the inhabitants ofnew france which is why they attacked the English Hudson bay company o There were further incidents in the war in America carried out through frontier raids o The French have the advantage in this kind of warfare o Even by the 1680s and 1690s there were a lot of settlers in new york o The enlgish were able to get fleets of armies and the first of these armies were sent to quebec city where they fired cannons which had no effect on the city and they were not able to do anything to the French defence  This attack was mounted by new England settlers on their OWN sources, already showing that they are a substantial economic entitiy o most of the decisive action in an indecisive war was ineurope o in the mid 1690s around 2 million French people perished due to disease and poverty o Louis IV was willing to take chances, he had taken a chance back in 89 which brought England into the coalition against him and again he took another chance which brought him to the war of the Spanish succession - war of the Spanish succession (queen anne’s war) 1702-1713 o the Hapsburg came to an end in the 1700s when the throne of spain was free for grabs to either a cousin newphew etc. and this meant either a buvarian, French or Austrian it was supposed to go to a buvarian however he as well died o this meant the throne went to the French, the great grandson of the dead Hapsburg empire, the Europeans take this as a coalition of france and spain and this is not acceptable o Louis IV passes away and the French throne goes to his sister in law (1702-14) o The engish who had not won a battle since the 1400s, but when they teamed up with the lead general of Austria they beat the armies of the french battle after battle
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