HIS349 September 10
Major themes of the course:
1. Industrialism and its Consequences – changes (especially social how they affected
politics and the economy)
2. Democratization of Britain
3. Social relations of British society – class relations (consumerism, new goods and ser-
vices) – gender and race
4. Consequences of warfare
5. Britain as an imperial nation – changes and decline of the Empire
United Kingdom, Act of Union (1801)
· After the Napoleonic wars, the mood was of great pride
· Progress was a 19th century term
· In 1801, there were nearly 16 million ppl
· The center was London, the biggest city in the world, the population was about 1 million
· United Kingdom: Scotland, Wales, Ireland
· Political, cultural, economic centre of UK – 54% of the population of UK in 1801
· Economically dominated the rest because of the coal mines
Wales (1535, 1543)
· England had incorporated Wales into its territory earlier
· In 19th century, Wales had only about 3% of population – they still maintained a distinct
identity – Welsh language
· Strong ties between Wales and Britain because: 1. They were religiously similar (Protest-
ants) 2. Wales was coal producing also
· Joins UK in 1707 but remains distinct legal, education system and religion (Presbyterian)
· In the 18th century, there was a great resistance – wars, rebellions · Yet there still remained affinities between Britain and the Lowland Scots
· Joins in 1800
· Therefore, there was the Act of Union in 1801 for UK
· Reason: Irish discontent and fear there will be a “fifth column” element with Catholic
· Unhappy from the beginning – differences in wealth and distributions of wealth – there
were many poor Catholics
Church becomes the Anglican church of England despite the fact that the majority of the
population are catholic
· After 1815, brit emerges out of war with France and they are in debt – begin recon-
structing, but they still have class + govt structure in tact
· Constitutional monarchy evolves in 19th century
· From 1760-1820, monarchs are King George III and Queen Victoria
· Victorian monarchy: her role becomes largely symbolic – a symbol for unity
· In modern times, monarchy still plays a role in govt
2. House of Common
3. House of Lords
· In the 19th century, House of Lords is the most important govt faction
· Before 1832, only 2.6% of total brit population has the right to vote
· MPs were aristocrats – this was a non salaries position so they need an independ-
ent source of income
· The house of lords were not elected – they consisted of 2 groups
1. Hereditary peers: they inherited their seats (this changed in 1997 to “life
peers” meaning they held their office for life)
2. Archbishops and bishops of the Church of England
· They had 2 focuses: 1. To pass legislation – they had the power to veto a bill from House of Com-
2. Highest court of appeal – named the Law Lords, since they were the highest
court in the commonwealth
· Brit does not have a written constitution, rule from precedence
· Middle class is always rising
· “social classes”: groups of ppl with vaguely similar socioeconomic status – this formed a
certain class consciousness
· Aristocracy: most powerful entity in 19th century politically – they were duty bound to
Peers/gentry, middle class, working class
1. Peers: titled aristocrats – dukes, earls, viscounts – fairly small, 300 families – the older
the title, the more prestigious your position – they were very wealthy
2. Gentry: untitled aristocrats – they were also land owners, “country gentlemen” – 3000
families – also wealthy
Both of these maintain wealth and power through inheritance – eldest son
3. Middle class
· Huge range of wages bw 125-1000 pounds
· They are not manual labours – do not work with their hands, have a profession of
· A middle class man aspires to keep an ornamental life – does not engage in manual
labour of house work – servants do this
4. Working class
a) Industrial workers – live in urban centres – work in factories, small workshops
b) Agricultural workers – subject to different controversies than urban class
c) Paupers: the extremely poor, don’t work even though they are “able-bodied” – at this
time, ppl believed that poverty was a moral problem therefore must be something
deficient about the person since they cannot find work
2ndwave empire (1870+) · After 1870, the Empire was a cry for patriotism
· This time was known as the 2nd wave
Workshop of the world
· Brit was an industrial society – they were proud of this
· They were named the “Workshop of the World” from 1750-1870
· A boom of railways, steam, coal and iron workshops
Great Exhibition of Art + Industry of All Nations (1851) or Crystal Palace Exhibition
· The first great exhibit in the world
· Opportunity for countries to celebrate and show off their products
· Crystal Palace was built for 2 purposes:
1. Celebrate brit industrial achievement
2. Educate brit taste and celebrate brit design
· The exhibit was a great success Thurs. Sept. 20, 2012
Lecture Two: Industrialism and Its Consequences
I. Industrial Revolution
-It provokes contervisory with historians if it actually occurred.
-It was in fact coined by a political reformist
-What made it a revolution, there were vast changes in the British economy but
we might divide these changes in two separate eras
-We see changes economic growth and expansion but not vast changes in the
lives of workers
-Factory system did not occur in the first half of the revolution
-Productivity will always grow and there is no stop to it.
-Huge expansion in the British population, it more than doubles in the 1830s. No
one can explain why this happens.
-More surplus of people to work in the factories and other jobs
-It was a paradoxic vast expansion, changes in ways of life and these lives
themselves were very blink
-We know that wages did rise and what people would but in the 1880s was much
more but at the same time life expectancy went down.
II. Arnold Toynbee (1882)
-He used the term Industrial Revolution he found in the 1870s in the secular
III. Two periods:
1. 17060s - 1830s 760s + cotton
-The textile industry starts up in this period
-Steam is applied -The development of more better looms, ie. produce more quickly
-Numerous factories and first factories are staring because of cotton.
-Cottage industry is created because of cotton ie. sewing things together
• 1770s + iron
-It is essential to industrial Britain
-Make it possible to remove the impurities from iron ore and when you do this it
makes the iron stronger so you can make ie. iron ships, railroad
2. 1830s - 1880s
-Tea, coffee, sugar become more available to the society ( mass commodities)
-Cotton comes from India and the southern US
-It gives Britain the chance to have a market and increases the profit ability to sell
to its colonies
• Changes in Transport: Steamships (1820s, 1830s), Railroad boom: 1825, 1841 - 70
(1825, Stockton to Darlington Railway)
-4500 miles of track are laid down and by the 1830s all of Britain is crossed with
-Quickly and cheaply send people long distances and merchandise
-The laying down of the track employes vast number of peoples
-Huge amounts of capital are invested and its hugely profitable for some people
-Changed concept of time and space, they become compressed and sight of
version goes fast and through a window
-First factories are the textile industry with have machines and employ more
-Before 1830 is only 6%
-Expense to build the machines
-Factory is a kind of wage labour that tends to be expensive
-By the 1830s tends to increase and people buy into a factory system
-Disciplined work force (come in at a certain hour and has to produce x amount
by the end of the day).
-Instill Victorian values of hard work into the children -Lets bring all the people together under one roof and increase productivity
-People also see it as a concern, ie. cotton and coal mining. The problem that is
brought forward is employment of women and children. The wages of children
were really low. They were tasked with hard jobs. In the mining industry children
were sent deep down in the holes cause they were small and same with the
cotton because they were small they could use their small hands to fix the com-
plex machines. They were a focus of moral concern and the principle problem to
the dangers they could face are for women becoming prostitutes because they were
unmarried and worked under men. Men could sexually abuse them. Same with
child, mostly in the coal mining industry. A series of parilementaries come to say this
system must be reformed cause this system is not right. It is hard to change things in
the being of the Victorian era
-The economy should be self regulating and no government interference. If the
economy is left to itself it would become more employments, economy in-
creasing. Why interfere when it is cheaper to employe women and children.
• Factory Acts (1833, 1844) 10 Hours Act (1847)
-Humanist and lobbyist fought for these acts to be put in.
-Limited reform and explicable to a few industries
-Important is the 1833 act it focuses on children in some industries, 1)children
can not work if they are under the age of 9. 9 - 14 can only work 8 hours a day,
2) 2 hours of schooling per week in each factory. 3 ) mechanism for factory
inspector. Enforcing anything poor over worked malnutrition children. Take these
ages with a grain of salt, no birth certificates so no one knows how old the chil-
dren are. In law there is something called the children and they should get come educa-
tion and importance of the factory inspector (buearancy and we are employing people to
watch the factor and check them out)
-Women can only work 14 hours a day.
-1847: cap on the men in certain factories boundaries of what is work and
• Poor Law Amendment Act / New Poor Law (1834)
-This is a reform act to help the poor -In the early 19th century there was no understanding of poverty like we under-
-The paupers are increasing and they are going to out strip the food supply the
the whole country is going to go hungry.
-Check the population growth of the very poor and help the paupers out and
check them into place.
-This is the most hated piece of legislative by the working class
-It tries to rationalize relief
-Make the conditions to apply for it so hard only those who really need it will
-This legislative it felt that the poor were being punished
IV. Living conditions of working class
-Vast changes in the ways they live and experience leisure
-The cities are getting larger
-Industry and housing is side by side it is very poor
-Living conditions are crammed and the houses are smaller
-Living in a tenant building, one or two rooms. Average working class house until
the 20th century
-Everything happens in these tenants, you work and have family activities.
-There is no plumbing, you get rid of the garbage by throwing it out the window or
in an out house.
-Problem with sewage, plumbing, coal dust everywhere
-Overcrowding and population lead to disease and in the 19th century this is a
big problem ie. scarlet fever, cholera
-Huge number of people die and infant mortality.
-Life expectancy is low. In 1820 man is 42 and 45 for a women in Glasgow
-By 1855 the life expectancy feel man is 37 and 42 for a women in Glasgow. In
the short term conditions are blink and contemporaries are aware of it.
• Urbanization / “Cottonopolis” = Manchester
-Manchester has a population of 400 062 by 1881
-Huge increase because people live in the center of cities so they can work
V. Relief (charity)
-To make things better for yourself -By the turn of the 1800s was very old. Parish system since 1601 if you were
poor and in need you would go to your church and beg for help and the priest
would give you relief. This system breaks down in the 1800s because of the
increase in population. What happens is some parishes are over crowed in the
urban centers. If you are only aloud to apply to the parish you were born to. You
live in this urban center and you can not get help for the parish
-Extreme poverty it is a moral condition. If you are able body you should find
work. Basically if you walk, talk, etc you can find a job. If you can not you are
immoral and you do not want to work and you are lazy and you cause your own
-This means if you are applying for relief you become intutionilzed and you do not
just not get food you go live here and the family is broken up. Your day is going to be
dictated and you are going to do piece meal work and it just kept you busy. Men and
women lived on different sides and you had to work. You were told when to eat and do
everything. When you died in this workhouse you would be buried in a mass grave, and
it was unmarked. If you were part of the working class you would have a better funeral.
The poor’s chance of living the house was very very low. Thurs. Sept. 27, 2012
Lecture Three: The Quest For Democracy
I. Poplar Politics
-People exercising the rights of citizenship in the franchise
-The political system was not working for them because of large population growth and
increasing urban life (industrial and commercial).
-A political system that can cover the needs of an industrial and commercial city
-The French Revolution has an effect on the British
-Radicals are interested to what is going on in the French Revolution (universal rights of
man). They are influence to what is going on in the conteint. The political system needs
to be reformed.
-Before you have the vote how to you express your discontent with the government:
march, riot, clubs/ societies and debate and send in petitions.
-We can courtly years on unhappiness with the political system. Because of the bad
II. Peterloo Massacre, 1819
-In August of 1819 a huge rally gathered they were middle and working class. They
came to here Henry Hunt to hear his speeches.
-Meet on Peter’s hill, the government of the day fear the mob.
-They call in the caliber and 17 are killed, hundreds are injured.
-Government oppression against popular politics.
-It inspires radicals to push further for enfranchisement
-Middle class intellectual whigs are inspired III. Henry Orator Hunt
-He was a radical, interested in universal manhood suffrage and in annual parliaments
and secret ballot.
IV. Edinburgh Review and Young Generation of Middle-Class Intellectual Whigs
-They think Britain should not be acting the way like the French revolution
-They believe in limited reform and giving some of the middle classes the right to vote
-They are defining the middle class.
-This period comes important to what leads to the 1832s reform acts
-The problem is up until 1832 only 2% have the right to vote: property owners. Extreme
problem with distribution of seats. Seats are divided in counties and boroughs but there
is no correlation between members of parliament and areas. There is no secret ballot
and it is done by bribery
-In 1830 there is another French revolution (another economic down pour in Britain)
-Something needs to by done before Britain has a revolution like France
V. The Great Reform Act
-Gary from the Whigs starts to create a reform that will protect the artiscacry in parlia-
ment, give the population enough that shows the population. This is all about a limited
reform. The actual passage of the bill is dramatic. Creating the bill is done at the house
of commons and then in april and may the house of lords have to sign it. They can veto
it. People would meet in the “may days’ waiting for the lords to sign this act. Britain is on
the brick of revolution at this point. The bill is signed and people are happy. It is the first
step to enfranchise the middle class, and reduces the property qualifications of the en-
franchise. You have to live on land that is worth 10 pounds in the cities and 15 in the
boroughs another complex system but more people can vote and other time the number
gets bigger. First step of democratization of Britain. Who it excludes the great majority of
the population. Class based legislation, better for the aristocracy, the upper classes.
Working class, wanting the reform.
VI. Representation of the People Act, 1918
-All men over the age of 21 can vote and certain women over 28 can vote because men
served in the war. You deserve and must have a say because you fought for our coun-
try. VII. Chartists / Chartism (William Lovett, London Working Man’s Association Thomas
Attwood, Birmingham Political Union, Feargues O’Connor, Northern Star)
-Working class political movement in the 1930s
-1838 -1848 it is at its hey day
-Part of the bad defining the movement of what it is because it is an umbrella of working
class organization- issues. Working class men from the North seeking common cause
with artisans from London in the south. Are all part different class working movements
-Artisocracy of workers are those who are very skilled, intellectual and working class
-Working men are respectable and responsible enough to get the vote.
-They are not a drunk, dirty middle class.
VIII. People’s Charter
-This is the Chartists platform
1. Universal manhood suffrage - every man over 21 should have the vote
2. Annual parliaments - the maximum responsibility of the parliament
3. Secret Ballots-to eliminated bribery of voting
4. Equal rep. - correlating population to the election members of parliament
5. Payment members of parliament - you have to have a large enough income to
sit in parliament for a number of months. Earn living to be in parliament
6. Abolishment of the property qualifications for the vote - different justification for
the suffrage and also to be a member of parliament
-Scares the franchise, and the fear of revolution or advocating for a moral sway
-There is an underlining violence to Chartism - peacefully if we may, forcefully if we
IX. Petitions-1838, 1842, 1848
-For what they are asking for in the six points of the charter
-3 very large petition and each have more and more signatures
-First one has 1 million, second has 3 million, third is a monster petition
-Still no response from the government
X. Kennington Common, 1848
-Huge petition, they are going to march from here to parliament to give the petition -5 million signatures on it and it also has fake signatures like Queen Victoria, so the legit
of it is questioned
-There is a great fear that a revolution is going to happen. What happens is that the
meeting itself when the armed military and this march ends. Charisism falls apart.
-It can be a failure Charisism because 1) a division in the movement, no central vision.
2) failure to join ranks with middle class lobby groups. 3) the economy picks up in the
1840s and 50s. The same time the success of it is not to be under est. 1)a working class
identity, working class had a cause for themselves alone. 2) a vision of Britain as a
democrat nation. The six points are the pillars of democracy. They are realized in 1918.
All except the one part of annual parliaments.
XI. 1867 Reform Act: “A leap in the dark”
- Whigs are becoming the liberals, they think the working class should have the vote.
Reforming the excesses of the parliamentary system of the aristocracy, if they get some
of the working ie. Gladstone is interested in enshrining the respectable working class
have what it takes to be worthy of the franchise. There gov’t dissolves, and the Conser-
vatives come under Desrailie and he likes the idea of the working class vote and he
thinks they will vote for the Tories. They pose this act as the most radical because it ex-
ceeds the franchise to 1/3 can vote in Britain. The liberal government is again in power
under Gladstone and they once again try and fix parliament. By 1884 most men are en-
XII. 1872 Secret Ballot Act
XIII. 1884 Reform Act
XIV. 1918 Representation of the People’s Act
Victorian Society: Legacies of the 19th century
I. Doctrine of Separate Spheres
-Family values, Mass communication and Science II. Angel in the House
-Middle class wife
-Moral, passionless and innocent of sex. Help mets to your husband and a mother
-The ideal middle class man was someone who was really strong, public affairs outside
the home (commerce)
-Four affects: status of middle class men and women was tied to this ideal of getting
married, more women than men problem. When they were wealthy enough to keep a
wife who does not work they achieved middle class status. Tied to the middle class polit-
ically. Its right to participate in the nation. Moving on to the 20th century the idea of the
necular family people should aspire for.
III. Matrimonial Causes Act (1857)
IV. Married Women’s Property Acts (1870, 1884)
-Women could not get divorce until 1847 and they could not get property till the 80s.
V. Innocent Childhood
-The invention of child and childhood; separate stage of development. See them as in-
dividuals with particular needs. Ideas of innocent childhood. The work of children should
be stopped to an extent and they should have an education. Duty of the family to edu-
cate, nurture and give them a moral upbringing. 19th century we see the child consumer
ie. toys, games, bubbles. The invention of the nursery, a separate space in the home
where children play and are educated.
VI. Education Acts 1870, 1880, 1901
VII. Penny Post (1840)
-You were charged by pages and distance and very expensive. Sender did not pay, ac-
cepting it did.
-For the uniform price of 1 penny you can send a letter anywhere in Britain and it oc-
curred once a day.
-A real mapping of a country, it becomes connected through this network of postal ser-
vice (gov’t). Gov’t agent in every town somewhere you can go ie. post office. You can
bank small sums into savings. VIII. Stamp Acts, Repeal: 1836, 1855
-Newspapers come out more during this time. There is no sense of censorship. To con-
trol the press was through this act. They would pay taxes on newspapers. Up to 4 cents
on each copy of paper, people did not buy a paper. But they would go to the clubs, work-
ing class people and read one common paper. Not a profitable business, not as many
during the first half of the 19th century. Radical press, illegal papers, short print ones
and are tied to radical causes.
-Known as taxes on knowledge. Suppressing knowledge.
-It went down to one penny on each paper. Flourishing middle class paper and in the
1855s its gone the tax. Flourishing of the press and people are following / addictive to
IX. Charles Darwin (1809-1882)
- After his undergraduate he does not know what to do and his family suggests in 1831 -
1836 he should go voyaging on the HMS Beagle to be the captains companion. He
takes his notebook takes notes, very acute observing and sends taxidermy and other
things to Britain so he can look at it later. When he gets back he starts thinking about
what he has learned, he reads these two books and they influence Darwin:
Charles Lyell’s Principles of Geology (1830-33)
Thomas Malthus’s Essay on Principle of Population (1797)
-He thinks about the theories of evolution
-Each species had evolved from antecedent species and ultimately one or two forms
-Mechanism for change was natural selection- nature’s natural process of picking the
fittest to survive.
X. The Origin of Species and Natural Selection
-Was afraid to publish this to the public
-Wallace came up with the same theory as him, and tells him to publish his theory be-
cause he came to the theory first.
-1859 it is rushed into print
-It is about animals, ie. pigeons, dogs.
-Fearfully of what is going to happen he lives it to his publisher -People connect it to man and man evolves from previous forms
-In 18871 is when he actually writes about evolution and man
-What it means to be a scientist, goes out and looks at things
-Others are looking at nature for there theories and nature to justify what they are doing.
-Races are engaged for the struggle to survival (nazi)
Thursday October 4, 2012
Lecture Four: Party Politics
I. Liberalism, John Stuart Mill “On Liberty” (1859)
-The individual is the seat of all reason
-Rights of all
-The second main idea is people are not different from one another in capacity. Every-
one has the capable to full the duty of rights. It is society duty to education and uplift
these people and their rights.
-Teaching them the right ways. -The third is thinking about the role of government and thinking about the political and
economical sphere (they must come together). Economic sphere must be free from gov-
-The economy must be self regulating.
-Liberalism poses a problem, if my rights infringe someone else’s rights. The rights of
the individual extend so far that they do not infringe on other.
-This is a general idea, and concept of liberalism
-There are no political parties, when someone is voted in they pick which way they want
-Become the conservatives under Peel and Desiralli, perceiving the old english institu-
tions (the church of england, house of lords and the monarchy).
-They are part of the aristocracy and want to keep that.
-They are thinking about modern reform
-They are influenced by the industrial revolution and what it has led to.
-The threat of economic depression and revolution
-They want institution reform, after 1832 the rights of property and aristocracy is main-
-Important in creating the contours of modern British politics
-The rightness of the reform acts
IV. Robert Peel PM (1834-35, 1841-46)
-He cuts an interesting figure, a tory leader. A British patriot, interest of the country be-
fore class acts.
V. Tamworth Manifesto (1835)
-This is written by Peel, he states interested in bring the tories in a position of reform
-The tory party is ready to approach reform
-Two measures: brings the host members of parliament support the reform act, support
laissez-faire economics VI. Repeal of Corn Laws (1846)
-A piece of legislation made in 1815, high tax on the import of grain, a piece of class le-
galization on aristocrat from their lands. Grain was high in Britain. Peel repeals them to
please the people. This move is contersvaional in the tories because they are aristo-
crats, so the party splits.
VIII. Benjamin Disraeli (1804-1881), PM 1868, 1874-80
-Aristocrat class, Jewish heritage, converted to Anglican (his parents) in his writings he
says he’s Jewish.
-Successful writer, and politician by his 30s
-The passing of the 1867 Reform Act
-Two policies for the foundation of conservatism: paternalism and Britain as one nation
IX. Manchester Free Trade Hall Speech (April 1872)
-Four hour speech
-Consumes two bottles of brandy, he attacks Gladstone
-Expresses concern for the primary health of the people. The aristocrats have not been
taking care of the people who have been oppressed by industrialism. Improvements to
the life of the lower classes ie. water, air, etc
X. London’s Crystal palace speech (june 1872)
-His vision and what becomes the conservatives of one nation
XI. One Nation
-All Britain united under the greatest of the nation and paternalism
All theses acts below are to help the nation under Desrali:
1. 1875 pollution of rivers acts
-Sewage not being dump in the Thames
2. 1875 artisan dwelling act
-Clean up the slums, bulldozing the areas and not fixing them or making new ones
3. 1875 sale of food and drugs -Figuring out how to remove the impurities ie. flour laced with saw dust
-Desrali is the one who does on this based on Gladstonian liberalism
-Britain gets the Suez Canal, expanding imperialism
XII. Royal titles act 1876
-Queen Victoria becomes the emperors of India
The rivalry between Gladstone and Desrali
XIV. William Ewart Gladstone (1809-98) (PM 1868-74, 1880-85, 1886, 1892-94)
-Really leaves his stamp on British politics
-Father of 19th century liberalism
-Grandfather of British politics
-Embodies more of the Victorian era
-Religious, devoted Anglican
-There must be connections between politics and morality
-He was a hard working and author of manuscripts.
-He also chopped trees from his estate
-Victorian relationships with women
-Advisor to the Queen, she did not like him much
-Addressed women as they were a public meeting
-He would lecture the prostitutes (moral)
XV. Slogan: Peace, Retrenchment, Reform
-Gladstone’s famous slogan
-Peace = important morally to not be part of them but at times immorally to be part of
-Minimal role of government
-Retrenchment: Self improvement and education must be promoted
-Reform= expanding democracy, by the 1860s the working man should have the votes
and become under the constitution
-Individuals who are educated and sober, this might erode aristocratic privileges. XVI. Great Ministry 1868-74 (Irish Home Rule, Forester’s Education Act 1870))
-Gladstone, here his tone of politics is set
-Gladstone sets out to pacified Ireland, Irish Home rule sees this as the solution to the
problems of Ireland. He disestablishes the church of England in Ireland (mostly
Catholic) institutes the land act, peasants cannot be evicted from the land they work. His
ability to do what he believes in morally and gets them done.
-Education act= beings to put on the books all children from 5 -13 should be going to
XVII. Northcrote Trevelyan reforms 1870s
-Gladstone does this as well
-Reform the army
-No longer can buy advancement in the army be merit not money
- Civil service, advancement by merit not be aristocracy
- Supported be a large base: 1. the old Whigs, playing into liberalism, 19th centu-
-2. Self made men and manufactures , free trade and advance by merit
-3. All manners of religious centers, those who are not Anglican
XVIII. Modlothian Campaigns
-Gladstone takes politics to the people, addresses great crowds
-People turn out to hear his speeches, face to face
-They are covered in the press
-The average working man connects to Gladstonian liberalism
-A politics of self help, they do not want any of the paternalism from the likes of Desrali
since the poor law of 1834 which did nothing for the average man. The average man to
prove himself capable of advancement and no help from the government who did not
help in the poor act.
-Workers want to be free from government interference and taxation.
-Politics is dominated by the conservatives and liberalism during the 19th century.
I. Constitutional Monarchy -
II. Queen Victoria, b. 1819, reigned: 1837-1901
-She comes to embody of what it means to be a constitutional monarch
-A powerful women in her age - contradictory
-In 1837 at the age of 18 came to the throne, succeeded her uncle William the 4th be-
cause he is childless
III. Four Stages of Victoria’s reign:
1.Accession 1837 until marriage 1840
-19th century Europe is the Victorian era
-Optimism and contradictories
-Dressed in black, serious. Not always amused
-First monarch in the age of mass media, first photographed (1843). Take a while to take
-Lived her life in the public eye
-Increasingly object of the consumer society
-Youthful beauty, simple, sweet heart of the people
-A focus point of morality
-Great hopes expressed for her youth
2.Albert of Saxe-Coburg-Gothe 1840 -1861
-Marries in 1840, Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, saw him twice first meeting did
not like him second meeting she liked him better and five days later she proposed to
him. He was her cousin. There marriage was a success and they had nine children.
Grandmother of many sovereigns of Euro. Success came from her family life. The suc-
cess of Britain during the 19th century was tied to the happiness of the royal family.The
model of what a middle class wife should be.
-What were the political roles of Albert. Middle class life deferred to Albert. He was not
popular with the press. Some say he was to powerful in his marriage to Victoria and he
wanted to be King of England. He did some of her duties because she was pregnant
and did not see them. So he made some of the decisions, and she shared her duties
with her husband. Had desks next to each other to saw there shared duties. She says
he should be king in name as well. The victorian monarchy is more about show than politics.They traveled the country, charities, military parades, take them serious. They
established that this one of the royals duties.
3.Withdraws From Public Life 1861-71
-Albert dies in 1861, he gets a fever and dies in December. Victoria is in grief and dress-
es in black. No more flashy dress she wears black till the end. She does not attend her
royal duties. She is in deep mourning for Albert during this period. The monarchy enters
in a crisis and republicanism comes to Britain.
4.Walter Bagehot “The English Constitution” 1867
-Suggests the monarchy fills 3 important functions and republicanism is not the way to
go: 1. Monarchy is a symbol of national unity and a focus for the people
2. Stresses the importance of the royal family. A model of domestic life for the na-
tion. Monarchy is something the people can relate to.
3. Talks about the politics influence it is important and even though it is limited. The
monarch must be consulted on affairs of the state, encourage the smooth function of the
affairs of state and if something is wrong it is convent for the monarch to warn the PM.
-People come and go in the government but the monarch has a long reign.
-Gladstone and Desarli plead with Victoria to come back to public life and they console
her. She gets along with Desarli. It is Gladstone who convinces her to come out, to cele-
brate her son Albert who survives the same disease that kills her husband. The public is
-She is a great supporter of British military campaigns
5.1876-1901 Renowned Royal Influence
-Resumes her public duties.
-In 1901 is her popularity is evident is her jubilee
-She reigned for 63 years - longest monarch to this day
-Came to define the role of the constitutional monarch
1. Political adviser seriously
2. Tied to above took on and defined the ceremonial roles of the monarchies ie.
going to charities.
3. Becomes the aritect of a Victorian, leads era her name and embodies all the
ideals. ie. the home life she achieved, with middle class levels. Being a wife and mother
was her main thing. She hated feminist movement and did not like female suffrage. She
embodied the politics and consumerism. 4.
IV. 1839 Bedchamber Incident
-Victoria becomes attached to the Whig PM Lord Melbourne (her adviser), the wives of
government attend to the Queen, influence on her. Melbourne is defeated and replaced
by Peel and she provokes a constitutional crisis, refusing the change over. Melbourne
comes back and he tells her she cannot get mad at the change over and interference
with the people’s vote. Interfere in matters of state, the men in her life effect over her
politics. Men she saw as powerful.
V. 1876 Royal Titles Act
-Disraeli makes Victoria the Empress of India
-Fascination with empire and expanding the empire and being a symbol.
VI. 1897 Diamond Jubilee
-First great planned royal event. It is all planned, the military marches, the route etc .
-Thousands gathered around the routes
-Her image is on all sorts of items - everywhere
-Associated on products of readability
-Invention of the brand, pictorial advertisement
-Victorian consumer cultural to the image of Victoria
Thurs. Oct. 11, 2012
Lecture Five: Empire Building 19th Century
-What did ordinary people know about their empire and what makes them ordinary.
What did the working class know about empire.
I. Civilizing Mission
-A hundred year period that witnessed a huge growth in their empire.
-By the end of the 19th century they were the leading imperial power
-This rep of the world is Britain is in the middle of the world
-Expansion reasons: 1) it is about money making. Balance of trade in Britain’s favour.
Captive market for British exports.
2)To protect empiral holdings - especially India.
3) The expansion of rival powers. From the 1860 + other Euro powers are gaining indus-
trial power ex. Germany, France, Belgian and Dutch. The scramble for Africa.
4) The civilizing mission, in the 19th century becomes the moral justification for empire.
It is Britain (Euros) to bring enlightenment to the barbaric nations of the earth. This en- lightenment comes in many forms: reforming laws, customs, religious and educational
reform. Large numbers of people / politicians who believed this rhetoric
-All these modems come together.
II. Settler Colonies
-They are colonies to which Britain exported its population and settlement of these
places. They were voluntary except Australia (they sent cons there to work the land).
The colonies were Canada, New Zealand, South Africa. They made relationships with
the indegious peoples of these nations cause they needed to live.
III. Responsible Government
-Happens in colonies of white settlements
-It is a status that is granted by London
-They are granted power over their own domestic issues and they are model after British
parliament. Taxation, trade and foreign policy are all looked after by Britain.
-White settler colonies can basically govern themselves, and Britain is minimal. They
pay for their own administration. White settler colonies are Britain’s miniatures.
-The ties btw these colonies and Britain will not be broken in the near future.
-After Britain loses American, India is the center of the empiral (jewel of the crown).
-British population is 45000 in India and the indegious it is over a million.
IV. East India Company
-British affairs are governed by them
-It is chartered by Queen Elizabeth I, India goods that are traded with Britain and of
-It is indep from the British government and it can negotiation with the Mogul princes of
India. Negotiation ways to collect taxes. It enjoys this trade monopoly and gets vast
wealth. There are other British companies that want to participate in India trade as well.
In 1819 the charter is renewed and it opens up other companies to trade. It is from 1813
+ it becomes an administration unit not just trade. It starts to interfere in the lives of indi-
viduals, protect of the profit modem. This comes to a head of the Indian Munity.
V. Indian Mutiny/ Sepoy Rebellion (1857-1858)
-Britain has interfered in the customs of Hinduism (gun bullets are soaked in beef fat
and they have to suck them to put in the gun) That goes against there religious belief. Britain focuses on the facts that the Indians are killing British women and children and
these are barbaric acts.
-Karl Marx takes a look at this and says there seems to be something wrong with British
rule and there is something wrong with British economic immunity.
1) There is general shock in Britain about this news of mutiny. Why are not these people
great full for our rule
2) In 1858 the EIC is abolished by the British parl. India is subject to British rule from the
India office in London. The reason for this, Britain realizes the importance of the eco-
nomic superiority coming out of India.
3) It becomes, retroactively as the Sepoy rebellion, India indep. from Britain beginning of
extraction of the British from India.
VI. 1807 Abolition of Slave Trade
- Beginning of the 19th century there are 22:1 slaves to overers in the colonies that have
plantations. ie. sugar places
- Slave trade is abolished
VII. 1833 Slavery Abolished in British Empire
-Slave owners got a middle area with keeping their slaves on their plantations until a
certain amount of work is done.
-Former slaves do not have equal access of lands and ones they do they are charged
really high and get low wages.
VIII. Morant Bay Rebellion (1865)
-This occurs in Jamaica in Oct 1865
-100 black jamaicans march into the central court house led by Paul Bogle, present eco-
nomic equalities and equal justice. Pointing at high rents on land and being evicted, they
want increasing control over judicial mechanisms. The governor Jamaica issues judicial
law. The death of Bogle and others who marched with him. A very celebrated cause in
Britain. The trail of John Eyre who is the governor of Jamaica. Stuart Mill, Darwin write
leaders saying Eyre must go to trail, this is not the right of empiral power. Charles Dick-
son’s say Eyre has done nothing wrong. Eyre is never brought to trail and stays in Ja-
maica. Even though he does not go to trail it is still symbol because we see people get-
ting involved in British empiral, Jamaica becomes a crown colony, abolish the 200 year
assembly and it is govern by legal dictates from the British parliament. IX. Scramble for Africa
-Trade from Africa
-In the late 19th century Euro countries scrambling for Africa
-The British expansion is rapid and its fast, concrete around central South African ie.
Cape town. Britain land up until Egypt. Britain is not interested in taking on the costs of
such rapid expansion in the continent.
-These charter companies are left to their own devices dealing with rulers. British South
African company is one of them.
X. Cecil Rhodes
-Owner of the British South African Company
-He is a white supremacist
-He wanted to connect all of Africa under British rule
-Successful business man
XI. South African / Boer War (1899-1902)
-This expansion created problems for Britain
-War btw the British, the Boers (dutch decent)
-The Afrikaners had moved inwards the Boers
-The Afrikaners had ties to Germany
-British imperial interest
-War is 3 long years, Britain thought they would win it fast
-British had to adopt a scorched military tactics, burning supplies, they build the modern
concerted camps (Afrikaner women and children are put into these camps and disease
spreads). These tactics occur again in British empiral power in Kenya in the 1950s.
British understanding of the empire in a more extent. As the war goes on Britain loses
confidence in the war because it is taking a long time. They started with confidence and
thought they could win. The military difficulties, and takes a look what is the problem
with their military and sees the poverty in the cities. The vast majority of kids who show
up to fight are physical unhealthy (Physical Degeneration) of the 12000 to fight, 7000 re-
jected. As a direct result of the unfit soldiers, and the battle that does not go successful
the government starts to think of social wealth fare.
-Beginning of 20th century school meals to make the population health, incase there is
another Euro conflict. Imperial searching, doubt, etc. Keywords: Drinking Tea: Empire at Home
I. Reach of empire and imperial products
-People have been buying imperial products for 200 years. The first was food stuff ie.
tea, coffee, sugar, tabacoo
1.Equipage (teapot, sugar bowl, milk jug, tea cup)
-There is nothing indenigous about the equipage at all, comes from places else
-Tea came from China, addicted to it like a drug
-Products tailored to a british market
2.Tea drinking as social activity shared by men and women
-British are valuing it and purchase it during the late 17th - 18th century. They
also get porcelain and silk.
-Men and women do it together, socialization, table for discussion unlike only
men drinking coffee at coffee shops
3.Tea drinking as indicator of class status
-Luxury to the upper classes.
-Portrait of yourself painted drinking tea shoes your status.
-High import duties on tea, from tea merchants who bring it in illegally
-The flow of tea happens more easily when the British government abolishes the high
duties on it.
II. Increasing mass commodity 1800+
-Tea becomes more cheap and its equipage and more middle class people drinking tea
-There are tea sets for children, and cheap enough everyone can consumed
III. Working class diet
-Milk, meat, flour, yeast potatoes, jam, tea, dripping, margarine, bacon, peas and cab-
bage, carrots and onions, quaker oats
-Diet not organized around nutrition particularly in the 19th century
-From nutritional point of view, working class spent too much money on sugar and meat,
these were priorities
-Sugar and tea became “drug foods” provide, engery, but no nutrition
-Tea becomes the whole meal
-Focus of attention on the working classes
-Creating a sober working class IV. Sugar plantations, West Indies and Caribbean
-With supervisors looking on labors cut sugarcane on a 19th century in the West Indies.
The production of sugar was laborious and plantations required large numbers of en-
slaved and indentured workers.
-Slaves out of Africa and to the Caribbean
-The sugarcane is a delicate plant, it can only grow in certain places
-Sugar turns the bitter tea into something sweeter
V. First Opium War 1839 - 1842
- The British are very interested in China before 1700, largely unable to secure the kind
of trade they want to have with China. The Chinese have the tributary system of trade,
to trade internally with trade in China you have to acknowledge the empiral powers of
China and Britain can not do this. China is not interested in the goods coming out of
Euro, interfere to what they already have. The only good China will accept is silver and
what British hid which is Opium (cultivated from India). Britain can sell Opium for silver
and drain China’s copper. There is an imbalance on trade. China slaps down on British
trades, but Britain wants to trade with them. Britain sells this war as they want free trade
and to protect the drug which was seized by Chinese officials. Britain gains foot holes to
the ports, and it gains Hong Kong, it insurances it has a certain autonomy on British
people(British merchants) in China cannot be subjected to Chinese law. British excess
to Chinese markets. Britain cultivates tea from India as well, and these become prof-
itable for the British. Frederick John Horniman (1835-1906) and packaged tea tell the
people they must buy this tea because it is part of their imperial duties. These mer-
chants say Chinese tea is not good and they should have package pure tea that is made
from the India sub continent and packaged in Britain. Chemist sell these tea bags are
the same people who sold the people drugs.
-In this time of increasing urbanization, with the coming of railway easy access of trans-
porting fresh milk from the farms to the city. Grossers are increasing selling milk. Hard to
known what was in the milk. Oct. 18, 2012
Lecture Six: Early Twentieth- Century Britain
I. Golden Age
-Most enjoyment in the arts and consumerism
-Certain of artistic developments that captured this era before the war. The old codes of
Victorian morality as they started breaking away. Ie. novels, musicals. etc
- More and more goods are avabile.
- The department store and cheap goods are avabile to more people
- An improvement in the standards of living
- An era of soul searching and crisis
- This moment between 1900 - 1916 is thought about as . . next point
II. “Strange death of liberal England?”
-An increased attention to the economic crisis of Britain, the economy seems to be de-
creasing to the other Euro competitors ie. Germany (increasing fast). Certain industries
such as coal and cotton are hit hard.
-New social investigations, but middle class individuals and they gain publicity ie. • Charles Booth’s Life and Labour of the People in London (1889-1900): he is not
going to find much evidence in inner London of social claims. He is shocked that 30% of
inner London is living in dirty places (the working class). Shines a light on the property
• Seebohm Rowntree, Poverty, A Study of Town Life (1901): does the same as
Booth except in the town of York.
-The children of the working class are malnurition. A study finds the child of the working
class are 15 pounds lighter and 2-3 inches shorter than the children in public school
-Lassiez-affair is no longer working
-Solutions to the crisis Britain is in
-One solution is proposed by Socialist (middle class, intellectual ideologies)
III. Fabian Society (1884)
• Beatrice and Sidney Webb, George Bernard Shaw
-Interesting group, middle class, intellectuals
-Very invested in thinking about ways the state should run
-Responsible gov’t is to inform decisions and bureaucratic make these decisions
-Social institutions in Britain need reform
-3 ways: early socialist, they go out and get stats ie. the poor law and find out what is
happening with these laws. The gov’t must provide some legislation and reform to pro-
tect property. They advocate some income weight distribution between the rich and the
poor. They seek out an alliance with the Liberal party in the early 20th century.
IV. Independent Labour Party (1893) / Labour Representative Committee (1899)/ The
Labour Party (1906)
-Labour is something of a curious case for Britain. It is both the party of the middle class
and working class of Britain. Workers are satifised with being represented by liberals.
This turns with the decrease of cotton and coal industries. They thought it would be bet-
ter for the working class to be self represented in parliament. In 1893 in respond to the
decline of coal and cotton clubs are formed and they come together in Bradford Britain
to secure the collective ownership of means of production. They form the Labour Party.
It is an extreme means and it needs support of unions on mass. Until 1901 there are no
unions, an interesting thing is happening to the union movement, a number of workers
who have joined unions has in creased ex. 1. 4 million workers. Between 1901 - 1914
went to 4 million. V. Taff Vale Dispute (1901)
-Joined the interest with the unions and the Labour party. There is a strike on the Taff
railway. The Taff railway sues the union for damages, the gov’t sides with the Taff and
this prevents for future strikes because it will become costly. By 1901 there are hundred
unions. By this time this labour party is worrying the liberals. So the liberals form an al-
liance with the Labour. They never run against each other. So they will support each oth-
er. This alliance is important to the labours. In 1906 the Labour party gets 29 seats.
Huge impact on social legislation on Britain. They are influenced on the fabian society.
they are coined the term below.
VI. New Liberalism
-Strand of thought that is developed by intellectuals, business man, writers who gather
around and break away from lassiez-affairs and old victorian society. They start to sug-
gest that yes state should interfere in society. Creating the necessaries conditions for
society to survive. Sets Britain on the road for welfare state.
VII. Liberal Victory (1906): puts in a series of legislation to improve the conditions for liv-
ing, education and people to survive and expand.
• Free school meals and medical inspection (1906): to children in english and welsh
schools and medical inspection.
• Old Age pensions (1908): important because the gov’t is starting to think about the el-
derly. Growing number of workers reaching old age. Very small income, given out week-
ly to those elderly workers who qualify for it. You can collect this from the post office, it
removes the stigma from being poor and going to the poor house.
• Labour Exchange (1909): central places where people go to employ for jobs. Posting
• Trades Board Act (1909): sets a minimum wage for the most improvertish industries ie.
lace making. • 1911 National Insurance Act: provides a national health and unemployment insurance.
Is going to be paid for be the employee, employer and gov’t. Only in certain engeering
industries, very limited. Most workers and women remain outside of this.
-It represent the state does have some responsibility to get rid of poverty and improve
the standard of living for its people.
-All of this is costly and Brit is still paying off the Boer War.
• People’s Budget (1910): George Lloyd comes up with this budget to attack aristocratic
privilege and distribute some income between the rich and the poor. To pay off the war
and help poverty. 1)it raised death duties (taxes on hertience, can be as high as 25%)2)
income tax a progressive tax, increase with the more you make a year 3) all incomes on
taxes more than 5000 pounds a year 4) tax on land values up to a 20% levy when states
were sold 5)placed a tax on gasoline
-Causes a major up war and it just passes super easily in the parliament but it gets
stopped in the House of Lords and they excerise their veto here. Parliament calls an
election and they talk about the selfish of wealthy men, the liberals call aristocratic para-
sites, and they walk on the backs of businessmen, etc. They win the election so the
lords pass the budget. Break the power of the house of lords.
Parliament Bill (1911): this bill ends the lords authority over budgets, restricts their au-
thority over bills to a two year delay, this provokes a different crisis, the lords go to the
King. George V comes to power as king and he is cautions and he passes this law.
Limited the power of aristocracy.
-It is in fact the led guard of military crisis 1) is Ireland. The deal of bill of home rule by
the house of lords. Increasing military by the unionist. Shipment of arms coming into Ire-
land for the unionist but the start of WW1 stops this. Threat by the rail for a general
Votes For Women
-1867 women part of the franchise, John Stuart Mill stood up in parliament to have wom-
en part of the franchise. Women over 21 got the same terms of men to vote. To smash
the privilege of middle class women during the 19th century.
I. Class -The feminist movement was a middle class movement, and it was dominated by class
causer. It was the middle class women who had the time to act politically. Working class
women were already involved in the society, present on the street. They did not have
time to care about the cause of women enfranchisement.
II. Legal Impediments to women
-They could not be good mothers
-Between the middle class women and the working class women. Legal impediments for
women. When a women married all her legal rights were assumed under her husband,
all of her property she brought into the marriage is her husbands now. She could not
make gifts, will without his consent, she could not sign any contracts on her own, any
money she made goes to him.
III. Divorce Act 1856
-Before this divorce was very limited, act of parliament and cost 1000 pounds.
-Separate court for divorce
-Her husband leaves, her. Husband is a Whig and during their separation he has control
over the children and her property. She makes a case to parliament, because her child
was not watch by their mother falls off horse and dies due to led poising.
-Sue for divorce in 2 cases: prove adultery of there husbands or wanted excessive cruel-
ty (stick cannot be thicker than thumb)
IV. Married Women’s Property Acts, 1870, 1882
-Custody is defined here for the women.
-Came out of the French revolution women should be part of the franchise
V. Frances Power Cobbe (1822-1904), Josephine Butler (1828-1906), Emily Davies
(1830-1921), Millicent Garett Fawcett (1827-1929)
1.Comes from philantory. Cobbe is a great humanist, writer associated with women
rights and the reform of marriage also in animal welfare and animal rights. She comes to
the conclusion women need to be involved in the parliamentary sphere. Butler is
plagued between her philantophy and religion. Davies wants excess for women to have
higher education. Fawcett comes to feminism through intellectualism and her husband is
a liberal and she’s in the same place as Mill VI. National Union Women Suffragist Society (NUWSS)
-Fawcett finds this organization
-Sub groups come under her group
-Encourage politicians in parliament to grant women to vote and to advocate for them
-In the 1860s all these were are advocating
VII. Three phases of struggle for women’s enfranchisement:
1.Constitutional phase 1867-1885:
-Amendment to the 1860s reform bill. Women who meet the same property qualifica-
tions should get the vote very limited (no married women and widows). This bill fails be-
cause of Disraeli. It would have passed much earlier if this passed. Disraeli is support-
ing the movement afterwards
-Conservative platforms: They are not supporting. Participating in high politics is
not part of the world of women.
-Liberal Position: They support it but Gladstone is not. He thinks granting women
the vote will make ladies unlady like. The power of her nature, the spheres of men and
women are different. His sentiments do not change when he is in opposition.
-Anti-Suffragist: Ideology of sperate spheres. Lots of prominent women in this
group. There are women in local governments who sit on ie. education boards.
1. They suggest women are unfit for high politics because they have innate minds
2. To easily convinced by men in their life, and cannot think indepently who they will vote
for. ie. tip the balance of vote one way or the other
3. To refined for the vote of politics
4. To hesticracial to vote
5. Distract from duties ie. motherhood
-Women will vote like their men by class. It is true women are the moral members of so-
ciety by bringing their morality to politics. Base of there argument for voting by playing
on separate spheres.
2. Doldrums, 1885-1904
-Not much is happening on the central stage. Women achieve huge advance-
ments in local area ie. going to medical school but not on the national stage. 3.Militant phase, 1904-1918: Suffragettes
-Women’s Social and Political Union (WSPU): 1903 formed in Manchester by the
mother and daughter below.
-Emmeline Pankhurst (1858-1928), Christabel Pankhurst (1880 - 1956) They move to
London. Brilliant properandga, draw attention to the cause. Play with the idea of middle
class lady like behaviour.
-Suffragette Tactics: Where ever they go put on a spectral and look it but do not behav-
iour in that way. They try to go into political meetings, yell and heckle at politicians. They
do this to get into the headlines so its talked about. A strong reaction to get women to
-Suffragettes Model = deeds not words. By 1909 they are chaining themselves to posts,
throw stones at politicians and land jail time. They start a hunger strike and politicians
see this. They start force feeding them in jail. Violent process, forcing tubes in your
mouth and the women link it to rape. Leads to this act Prisoners Temporary Discharge
(for ill health) Act (1913)- “Cat and Mouse Act.” Let women out and they start eating and
then arrest them again. The first world war brings this to an end. Women went to work,
they earned the right vote because they kept the home front. This was a class based ar-
gument, working class women always worked, it was the middle class women who want-
ed to the right to work.
-Representation of the People Act, 1918:Grants women the age of 30 who meet a cer-
tain property qualification to vote, for middle class women.
-Representation of the People Act, 1928: Emotions have calmed, and it worked for 1918
so now all women over 21 have the right to vote.
-This provides 2 windows: onto the crisis on the Edwardian