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HIS102Y1 (449)
Lecture

Lecture 1

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Department
History
Course
HIS102Y1
Professor
Sarah Amato
Semester
Fall

Description
← - Keywords: • United Kingdom, Act of Union (1801) • England • Wales (1535, 1543)) • Scotland (1707) • Ireland (1800) • Parliamentary System • Class System • Peers/Gentry, Middle Class, Working Class nd • 2 Wave Empire (1870) • Workshop of the World • Great Exhibition of Art and Industry of all Nations (1851) or Crystal Palace Exhibition ← th -Turn of 19 century the mood in Britain (after Napoleonic wars) was a time of great pride and progress - 16 million people in 1801; epicenter of power was London • London in 1801 was the biggest city in the world and it had a popn of 1 million people – it was a huge metropolis ← -England was the economic and cultural centre of UK. It had the largest popn (54% of UK in 1801). Because had concentration of industrial places (nickel fields etc) it was the economic centre of the UK. “what is good for England is good for Britain” • Wales -> was incorporated Wales in a series of wars…it comprised a small percentage of the UK (3%). Despire long associate with the UK, the Welsh maintained a distinct identity from the UK. This is demonstrated by the welsh language which is actually still spoken today. There are still some similarities… o Religiously similar (both are protestant) o Coal producing region is Wales and there is a strong ties between the welsh and the british coal workers (i/.e unions) -> therefore creates an affinity between the working classes of both. • Scotland (1707) -> but remains distinct in many ways (ed. Sys, legal sys, and religion (Presbyterianism; particulary in the highlands there was protest and wars against the joining to the UK)) . There are affinities between the industrialists of both countires • Ireland (joins UK in 1800)-> one of the main reasons it joined Britain is because of irish discontent and the fear of 5 column element in their alliance to France during the revolutionary wars…so they though it would be wise to have a stronger tie b/w Ireland and Britain. It is a very unhappy marriage b/w the two countries because there are so many differences in wealth b/w the two countries and w/I Ireland as well. Majority of the popn is catholic but the religion becomes Anglican after they join....which is another reason for discontent. ← ← -Britain came out of the 19 century basically unscathed and stable ← ← British Parliamentary system • 3 components – each play a vital o Monarchy o House of Commons o House of Lords** (Most important) • DOES NOT have a written constitution - instead have an evolving thing that works based on precedence th • Role of the monarchy is still changing through the 19 century o Monarchy has power but much more than they have today  George 3 -> has the power to dismiss his minister over a policy he doesn’t agree with  Victoria’s rule (1837) -> monarchy is ceremonial (1837-1931); her role is symbolic; focus of national unity  Monarchy today does play a role in government  Queen Elizabeth She opens government, official appoints the elected prime minister, she dismisses parliament before a general election & she gives her royal ascent to bills that were already approved that is before they become law; she has weekly meetings w/ prime minister where he brings her. Elizabeth has been on the throne for so long, she is the continuity (the prime ministers she has seen range from Churchill to Cameron) • Members of parliament are elected…1802 -> 2.6% of the popn of men has the right to vote (have to be a landowner) o They were from the elite section of society (aristocrat) o Is NOT a salary position (so you had to have an independent form of income) • House of lords -> NOT ELECTED o TWO sections  Hereditary peers -> ppl who inherit their seat  Archbishops and bishops of England (the Church ppl) o TWO primary purposes
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