Class 7 note review:
China withdraws its forces and acknowledges France’s position in Vietnam.
2.Sino Japanese War:
*August 1, 1894 China and Japan declare war on each other.
*Treaty of Shimonoseki(April 17, 1895)
~China was to recognize Korea as an independent country
~Formosa and the Pescadore Islands were given to Japan. Japan was also given
sovereignty in the Liaotung Peninsula.
~China signs a commercial tready with Japan similar to those China signed
with Western powers
3.Dismantling of the tributary system
*1872: Ryukyus become a Japanese prefecture
*1884-1885: Sino-French War
*1894-1895: Sino-Japanese War
~Formosa ceded to Japan
~Korea ends tributary relationship
4.Emperor Guangxu issues
*The Hundred Days Reform(June 11- September 21 , 1898)
~Reform of examination system
~Establishment of national assembly
Promotion of constitutional monarchy
5.Empress Dowager Cixi
*Regent for Tongzhi Emperor and Guangxu Emperor
*Empress Cixi’s initial response to Hundred Days Reforms:
“A long as you keep the ancestral tablets and do not burn them, and so long as
you do not cut off your queen, I shall not interfere.
*What did she do?
~Cixi reasserts her power.
~Puts Emperor Guangxu under house arrest(announces that a serious illness
has incapacitated the emperor).
~executes 6 leading reformers
~Reform measures reversed
6.Reasons for failure of Hundred days Reforms
*Inexperience of the reformers
*reluctance of empress Cixi to give up power
7.Repercussions of failure of the Hundred Days Reforms *Shows reform from the top down is impossible
*Widens the gap between Manchus and Chinese
*Future for Chinese lay in overthrow of the Manchu and this could not be
achieved through peaceful means
The Boxer Rebellion(1898-1900)
“Boxers”: Society of Righteous and Harmonious Fists
- Its members practiced weaponless marital arts. Western called these
martial arts “shadow boxing”, hence the commonly know name boxers.
Resentment towards Christianity
Treaties allow missionaries to move about China freely
Missionaries resort to offering converts money and protection against
Resentment toward converts
Resentment toward the influence, power and wealth of the missionaries
Christians were seen as socially disruptive.
Hardships of Taiping Rebellion were blamed on Christianity.
*1897: Germans were able to lease Jiaoshou for 99 years as compensation for
murder of 2 missionaries.
*1898: The British lease Weihaiwei for 99 years
*1898: French occupy the harbor of Guangzhou Bay south of Guangzhou.
*1898: Boxers attacking Christian missions and telegraph lines
*1900: The boxers burn churches and railway stations in Beijing: Place and
foreign legation quarters in Beijing and Tianjin under siege
*British and Americans pressure the Qing to put down the uprising.
*Empress Cixi supports the Boxers: Permit imperial troops to help the
boxers(Solution to Barbarian problem).
10 days of attacking and killing dipomats:
June 21, 1900, Empress Cixi declare War on all Foreign powers in China.
Boxers besiege Beijing for 56 days
-250 foreigners and Chinese Converts killed
8.Combined forces of 8 foreign powers (Austria-Hungary, France, Germany, Italy,
Japan, Russia, Britain, and the United states) send troops to capture the capital
on August 14, 1900. Empress Dowager Cixi flees west to Xi’an.
9.Treaty of 1901 ( Xinchou Treaty):
*Foreign legations were allowed to keep troops in Beijing for self-defence
*China forbidden to import foreign weapons for 2 years
*China to pay an indemnity of 450 millions silver dollars (about the twice the
annual income for the Qing government) *Russians use the Boxer Rebellion as a excuse for sending 200000 troops in
Manchuria to suppress “rioter”.
9.Manchu Reform Under Empress Cixi
August 20, 1900: Empress Cixi issues a decree accepting responsitibity for the
*1901: establishment of a national school system
*Civil service examination