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Class 7 note review.docx

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University of Toronto St. George
Carry Takagaki

Class 7 note review: Qing Dynasty 1.Sino-French War: China withdraws its forces and acknowledges France’s position in Vietnam. 2.Sino Japanese War: *August 1, 1894 China and Japan declare war on each other. *Treaty of Shimonoseki(April 17, 1895) ~heavy indemnity ~China was to recognize Korea as an independent country ~Formosa and the Pescadore Islands were given to Japan. Japan was also given sovereignty in the Liaotung Peninsula. ~China signs a commercial tready with Japan similar to those China signed with Western powers 3.Dismantling of the tributary system *1872: Ryukyus become a Japanese prefecture *1884-1885: Sino-French War *1894-1895: Sino-Japanese War ~Formosa ceded to Japan ~Korea ends tributary relationship 4.Emperor Guangxu issues *The Hundred Days Reform(June 11- September 21 , 1898) ~Reform of examination system ~Remodel bureaucracy ~Establishment of national assembly Promotion of constitutional monarchy ~Promote modernization 5.Empress Dowager Cixi *Regent for Tongzhi Emperor and Guangxu Emperor *Empress Cixi’s initial response to Hundred Days Reforms: “A long as you keep the ancestral tablets and do not burn them, and so long as you do not cut off your queen, I shall not interfere. *What did she do? ~Cixi reasserts her power. ~Puts Emperor Guangxu under house arrest(announces that a serious illness has incapacitated the emperor). ~executes 6 leading reformers ~Reform measures reversed 6.Reasons for failure of Hundred days Reforms *Inexperience of the reformers *reluctance of empress Cixi to give up power *Conservative opposition 7.Repercussions of failure of the Hundred Days Reforms *Shows reform from the top down is impossible *Encourages anti-foreignism *Widens the gap between Manchus and Chinese *Future for Chinese lay in overthrow of the Manchu and this could not be achieved through peaceful means The Boxer Rebellion(1898-1900) “Boxers”: Society of Righteous and Harmonious Fists - Its members practiced weaponless marital arts. Western called these martial arts “shadow boxing”, hence the commonly know name boxers. Resentment towards Christianity  Treaties allow missionaries to move about China freely  Missionaries resort to offering converts money and protection against officials  Resentment toward converts  Resentment toward the influence, power and wealth of the missionaries  Christians were seen as socially disruptive.  Hardships of Taiping Rebellion were blamed on Christianity. Imperialism *1897: Germans were able to lease Jiaoshou for 99 years as compensation for murder of 2 missionaries. *1898: The British lease Weihaiwei for 99 years *1898: French occupy the harbor of Guangzhou Bay south of Guangzhou. *1898: Boxers attacking Christian missions and telegraph lines *1900: The boxers burn churches and railway stations in Beijing: Place and foreign legation quarters in Beijing and Tianjin under siege *British and Americans pressure the Qing to put down the uprising. *Empress Cixi supports the Boxers: Permit imperial troops to help the boxers(Solution to Barbarian problem). 10 days of attacking and killing dipomats: June 21, 1900, Empress Cixi declare War on all Foreign powers in China. Boxers besiege Beijing for 56 days -250 foreigners and Chinese Converts killed 8.Combined forces of 8 foreign powers (Austria-Hungary, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Russia, Britain, and the United states) send troops to capture the capital on August 14, 1900. Empress Dowager Cixi flees west to Xi’an. 9.Treaty of 1901 ( Xinchou Treaty): *Foreign legations were allowed to keep troops in Beijing for self-defence *China forbidden to import foreign weapons for 2 years *China to pay an indemnity of 450 millions silver dollars (about the twice the annual income for the Qing government) *Russians use the Boxer Rebellion as a excuse for sending 200000 troops in Manchuria to suppress “rioter”. 9.Manchu Reform Under Empress Cixi August 20, 1900: Empress Cixi issues a decree accepting responsitibity for the Boxer Rebellion. *1901: establishment of a national school system *Civil service examination
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