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th Semester 2 Lecture 1: Wednesday January 12 , 2012 Partition and Colonial Conquest Colonialism  Foreign invasion/control of a pre-existing country/state  In Africa there were 3 types of colonial administrations o Indirect Rule System  Favoured by the British to administer the territories  Ruled indirectly – through local administration  Is the cheaper way to rule a colony because you do not need to establish a strong presence – appointing a governor general to represent the Queen  Introduced by Lord Luggard in Northern Nigeria but was then copied and spread to other parts of Africa o Direct Form of Administration  Used by the French for the greater part of their time spent in Africa  Colonial parties were part and parcel of the fronts  Should behave like the French and speak impeccable French o Company Rule  Initially acquired by business groups  Those business groups together were appointed by the government to gather money to the colonies  Cannot use just one kind of system to define colonialism in Africa  Colonialism had different effects and impacts on the ground and different implications  Colonialism in African arrived very late o Africa was not colonized until around 1884-1885  Colonial experience in Africa was very rapid – occurred in a very short space of time o Within 35 years, the entire African continent had been parceled out among various countries  Europeans felt that they had a God-given right to civilize the Africans o Mission Christianity felt that it was their God-given right to introduce Africans to their God and to take them away from their worship of animals  How did Europe colonize Africa? And within such a short space of time? o The Berlin Conference - 2 proposals – French and British  French  The best way to colonize and divide Africa was to establish effective control over those lands – show that physically you control that particular land  Must fight and ensure that the territory is firmly in your hands before you can declare and claim that it is yours  British  If you can put your flag on a particular soil and be recognized by the individuals who live there then you will have their loyalty and the land will be yours o Africans had little involvement in the development of the states in which they now live in – no African participation o Berlin gave a new international rule for forming a state  It is not the people inside that deem it a state but it is the international officials that decide if it can be a state – foreignists must endow you with that particular privilege. Gender Relations in Africa  African societies practice an economic system that had no money as a basis o Because it was not a monetary based economy, those that controlled things that were exchanged were the powerful individuals in society  Food was generally controlled by women  This was not good for the colonial authority because it never gave them the chance to get money to use for the colonial campaign  The colonial authorities introduced cash crops to get around this, such as cocoa, coffee, etc.  These cash crops were going to be produced by Africans and then exported to the outside world. These commodit
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