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Semester 2 History Reading Notes.docx

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Kenneth Bartlett

Semester 2 Reading Notes (Coffin: 736-738) The Science and Soul of the Modern Age -In biology the modern revolution began in the 19th cent. With the publication of Charles Darwin's theory of evolution (1859) and Gregory Mendel's theory of genetics, which was largely ignored until the end of the century - With the work of Hugo de Vries around the turn of the century, biological evolution came to be interpreted in terms of mutations that result in a genetically distinct species; the survival of a given species was thus related to its ability to adapt to its environment through such mutations. Darwin's Revolutionary Theory -The organisms whose variations best fit them to the environment are the ones who are most likely to survive, reproduce, and pass those desirable variations on to the next generation. Darwinian Theory & Religion -Ever since Darwin first published The Origin of Species, evolutionary theory's implications for traditional religious beliefs have been endlessly debated. -Many people, both past and present, have assumed that evolution would utterly eliminate all of religion's claims to validity; there have been many that feared this idea and a few that welcomed it. -Still others have spent many hours speculating on the relationship between evolution and religion, only to develop shaky syntheses or to give up, calling the problem insoluble. Social Darwinism -Social Darwinism is a misguided social theory that attempts to adapt Charles Darwin natural selection principles and apply it to human society. -This social theory, promotes a culture that embraces the concept of the "survival of the fittest" whereby using it to explain poverty and to justify class distinctions between individuals, as well as, the imbalances of power between races, and nations. -It claimed that the success one achieves in society and the wealth attained, is determined by ones genetic background. As such it was morally wrong to assist those who were weaker (poor, less successful, or disadvantaged minorities) in society because one would unnaturally promote the survival of the "unfit" whereby allowing them to reproduce carrying on this ―flawed‖ genetic makeup. They were seen to deserve their outcome in life because they were ―less fit‖ than those who were better off (better adapted). This was therefore a natural way of nature weeding out the genes from the population - destined for extinction. -It was therefore used to justify eugenics programs which aimed to obliterate ―undesirable‖ genes of the ―unfit‖ the less fortunate who would become extinct overtime. Thereby, creating a superior society of people of greater health and intelligence which would lessen human sufferings and other societal ills that would save the society's resources. -It provided a justification for the more exploitative forms of business practices which was supported by theories of laissez-faire economics. A system where workers were underpaid and overworked. As such, these large business didn‘t recognize labor unions and altercate that governments should not interfere with human competition by tampering with the natural evolution of society. This includes, regulating the economy or helping the weaker (less fortunate) people in society. They were for example, against the rich donating money to programs that would support the poor and needy, as well as, the public school system (since it forced taxpayers to pay for the education of the poor people's children). They were against all these regulation and policies because it would allow these ―unfit‖ to pass on their ―poor quality‖ genetic traits to their offspring - the next generation. This therefore created a great gap between wealth and poverty. -Social Darwinism also claimed that some races or nations are fit for survival than others and are therefore designed by nature to dominate inferior races or nations. This misguided application of science was used to promote social and political agendas, not intended by Darwin himself. Hitler used these ideas and incorporated them into Nazism. The Nazis used this scientific justification to murder millions of Jews in World War II (the Holocaust) as a way of cleaning out the inferior genetics. Others have also used this misguided and dangerous social theory to carry out serious crime and evil on their fellow human. -Colonialism was also seen as being natural as a way of life. This was marked by the exploitation by a stronger country of weaker one because they saw others (natives) as being weaker and unfit to survive. This justified the seizing and use of the weaker country's land and resources to strengthen and enrich the stronger country. Origin of the species -On the Origin of Species, published on 24 November 1859, is a work of scientific literature by Charles Darwin which is considered to be the foundation of evolutionary biology (Coffin: 702) Imperialism and Racial thought -Imperialism and racism are connected because most imperialists are racist towards the people they conquer. -Often imperialists will believe they are helping an uncivilized country become more advanced and successful. They believe that the people they are conquering are an inferior race who wouldn't know how to govern themselves unless the white people had showed them how. However, usually the imperialists do more to hurt than to help country they are conquering and, in the end, are only really imperializing for the benefit of their country (Coffin: 679-709) Imperialism and colonialism 1870-1914 - Imperialism is to rule over a people or place through colonization, military power, economic or political power. -Examples include the European (France, England, and Portugal) domination of regions of North & South America after discovery of the "new world," the rule and expansion of the Roman Empire, Japan's dominance over the West Pacific pre WW II. PRO -As an example; while the expansion of the Roman Empire was imperialistic, it did expand the modernization of roads, irrigation and technology to help advance all of Europe. CON -The conquering and settlement of North America by European countries and the resulting United States destroyed and decimated the Native American's way of life. Story lines •Industrialization, rapid technological development and the concentration of economic wealth gave western European nations great power during this period along with the confidence to use this power to extend their control to other parts of the world •Colonial expansion occurred simultaneously with the development of mass politics and the spread if consumer culture in Europe, a combination that made colonies and the power to control them an important part of national identity for many ppl in Europe especially in Britain, France and Germany •The new imperialism ushered in a new era of conflict: between European powers and newly colonized ppls in Africa and Asia, and between the colonizing nations themselves as they competed with one another for global influence and resources Chronology 1788 British establish colony in new south wales Australia 1797-1818 British expand foothold in India 1830 France invades Algeria 1839-1842 Opium Wars in china 1840 British establish colony in New Zealand 1857 Sepoy mutiny in India 1870-1900 European scramble for Africa 1875 Britain gains control of Suez canal 1882 British occupation of Egypt begins 1883-1893 France moves into Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia 1884-1885 Berlin west Africa conference 1896 Italian forces defeated by Ethiopians 1898 Fashoda crisis, Spanish American war 1898-1901 Boer war 1990 London pan African conference 1904-1905 Russo Japanese war Core Objectives DEFINE Imperialism and locate the major colonies established by European powers in Africa and Asia in the 19c AFRICA -Many African civilizations rivaled Europeans during the middle Age and many African civilizations were actually more advanced thousands of years ago, but many people are under the impression that Africans were all living in mud huts and never managed to accomplish anything - no architecture, inventions, anything - throughout history. -Most Americans believe this because of European Imperialism, colonization, slavery and scientific racism. There were MANY glorious African civilizations before Europeans colonized Africa, but in order to justify slavery, whites claimed that blacks were just savages who were incapable of self-governing. They claimed that slavery was actually in our best benefit, because life as a slave was better than what we'd have in Africa, which was untrue. -I.e. Zimbabwe today. It's only in the state it's in today because Europeans stole the land, raped the land of its natural resources, and divided it amongst themselves, forcing people who hated each other, to live side by side. Now it's in chaos. That is how European Imperialism affected Africa. This result can also be seen all over Africa. ASIA -Beginning in the seventeenth century, Great Britain formed and maintained an economic relationship with India. By the end of the eighteenth century, British rule of India was firmly planted and London came to view India as the jewel of its empire. This view guided its foreign policy. -For decades, Britain used its military victories and naval superiority to ensure uninterrupted routes to India and beyond, hence its island holdings in the Mediterranean, along the West African coast, at the southern tip of Africa, and, most importantly, the Suez Canal. By the end of the eighteenth century, Indo-British economic ties were so entrenched in a neo-mercantile system that India provided a stepping stone for British trade with China. Britain traded English wool and Indian cotton for Chinese tea and textiles; however, as Chinese demand slackened, Britain sought other means of attracting trade with China. -By the 1830s, Britain realized it could make up the trade deficit with China by selling Indian opium into the Chinese market, making opium Britain's most profitable and important crop in world markets. Eventually, opium poured into China faster than tea poured into British hands; soon, Chinese merchants, already addicted themselves and buying for an addicted population, paid British opium traders in pure silver. -The ecological effects of imperialism were mixed throughout the world. Imperialism led to the dislocation of thousands of small societies when the Europeans drew haphazard and illogical lines on the colonial maps. Industrial development disturbed the pristine environment of previously undamaged territories, the traditional societies were replaced by European businessmen and investors. While slavery had gone out of favor some time ago, African and Asian men and women were viewed as cheap labor for European factories; therefore, slavery conditions persisted. UNDERSTAND the major reasons for European colonial expansion in the 19c -By the 19th century the only European nations left in the Americas were Spain, Portugal, and France for a brief time. France had no more interest in its affairs in the Americas; selling their land to the US government to support the war with Britain. However most colonial expansion was seen in South East Asia and Africa during the 19th century. Natural Recourses were really the only reason that European nations had interest in these parts of the world. India was the crown jewel of Great Britain, and was colonized by them until Ghandi came along. DESCRIBE the choices faced by colonized ppls in the face of European power and culture EXPLAIN how imperialism shaped the culture of European nations at home Nationalism is the devotion and loyalty to one‘s own nation. It lead to imperialism because some countries like Britain, took nationalism to meaning that they were the best country and race in the whole world. So buy imperialising other countries, to a certain extent, they believed that they were truly helping them, but in the end it usually ended in the other country being left worse than before they came. UNDERSTAND the nature of the crisis faced by European imperial powers at the end of the 19c The greatest European powers included Rome, Holy Roman Empire, France, and the Byzantine Empire. (Coffin: 746-769) The First World War -Imperialism helped cause WW1 because the British ruled about 25% of the Earth's surface at that time, and this cause Germany to be jealous. They wanted to expand as well, but they couldn't because they were surrounded on every side by powerful countries. The fact that the British had so many colonies around the world forced Germany to demand more and this contributed partially to WW1. -Industrialism helped cause WW1 because all the countries involved at that time were developing better and better technology, and the race to become the greatest nation was on. Germany felt threatened by the technology of some of the other countries. Story Lines •in 1914, the balance of power in Europe collapsed in a total war that mobilized the full resources of modern industrialized nations, their global empires, and their populations •the war transformed the relationship between the state and society. Governments conscripted an entire generation of young men, encouraged women to work in industry and took control of the economy to produce goods and material for the military. •the war provoked the first successful socialist revolution in modern history when the Russian empire collapsed and the Bolsheviks seized power in October 1917. The Russian revolution set stage for the major ideological confrontations of the 20c Chronology 1879 The dual alliance (Germany & Austria Hungary) 1904 The triple Entente (France, Russia, Britain) 1914 Assassination of Franz Fernindad in Sarajevo Sept 1914 Battle of the Marne April 1915 Gallipoli campaign begins May 1915 Italy enters the war against Austria Hungry Feb 1916 Battle of Core Objectives DEFINE the origins of WWI Causes of World War I The causes of World War I, which began in central Europe in July 1914, included many intertwined factors, such as the conflicts and hostility of the four decades leading up to the war. Militarism, alliances, imperialism, and nationalism played major roles in the conflict as well. However, the immediate origins of the war lay in the decisions taken by statesmen and generals during the July Crisis of 1914, casus belli for which was the assassination of Archduke Franz -The crisis came after a long and difficult series of diplomatic clashes between the Great Powers (Italy, France, Germany, the British Empire, Austria-Hungarian Empire and Russia) over European and colonial issues in the decade before 1914 that had left tensions high. In turn these diplomatic clashes can be traced to changes in the balance of power in Europe since 1867. The more immediate cause for the war was tensions over territory in the Balkans. Austria-Hungary competed with Serbia and Russia for territory and influence in the region and they pulled the rest of the Great Powers into the conflict through their various alliances and treaties. The topic of the causes of World War I is one of the most studied in all of world history. Scholars have differed significantly in their interpretations of the event. Militarism •Arms races of the previous decades •Previous military planning Alliances •Intricate system of alliances •The perceived breakdown of the balance of power in Europe Misperceptions of intent – e.g., the German belief the United Kingdom would remain neutral •Delays and misunderstandings in diplomatic communications Nationalism •The growth of nationalism across Europe •Unresolved territorial disputes •Convoluted and fragmented governance Imperialism •Imperial and colonial rivalry for wealth, power and prestige •Economic and military rivalry in industry and trade – e.g., Pig War (Serbia) Assassination •Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand UNDERSTAND the circumstances that led to trench warfare on the western front, and the consequences of the offensive strategy pursued by all sides. WWI was a war of attrition, the two most commonly cited reasons are 1) industrialization / railroads, and 2) the machine gun. Combined, countries now had the ability to create (and transport to the front) as quickly as they could destroy. IDENTIFY the major effects of the war on civilian life -The effect that World War I had upon civilians was devastating. WWI was a war that affected civilians on an unprecedented scale. Civilians became a military target. The economic impact of WWI meant that there were shortages of all produce, most importantly food. Consequently, rationing of bread, tea, sugar and meat was introduced in 1918. This was widely welcomed by the British public, as a voluntary rationing system had been introduced a year before, and people were eager to see their neighbours taking part as they were. Living standards plummeted, and the post-war economic state of Europe was at mid-19th century levels. During the war, 8 to 10 million soldiers were killed in battle, and 22 million were injured. This meant that nearly every family lost someone. Population losses were enormous. Propaganda at the time also gave the false impression to the public that everything was ok, when in reality so many people were dying. -After the Battle of the Somme, July 1st 1916. 60,000 were injured and 20,000 were dead. This incident was famously made into a film. However, it had a major impact on the British civilians, as this-along with Siegfried Sassoon's anti-war poetry, made a hole in the government's propaganda. The public were finally beginning to see the reality of the war. -World War One also had a large impact upon the role of Women. With all the men at war as soldiers, Women began working for a living. This became crucial in 1915, as the munitions crisis began. Not only were women working in factories and coal mines, they were called upon to tackle yet another issue. After the German submarine blockade in 1917, Britain was unable to import goods-including food. The Women's Land Army was formed in 1917. They strove to maximise the country's outcome, and to feed the nation. EXPLAIN the wars effect on territories beyond Europe‘s borders, in the Middle East, in Africa and Asia Middle East The resolution of World War I effectively laid the foundations for the modern Middle East. After the defeat of the Ottoman Empire - a regional powerhouse that controlled the Middle East until its dissolution 1918 - the national boundaries for each country were established in different ways, either by recognized independence or as temporary mandates under either British or French rule. -Saudi Arabia was already an independent state, and Turkey waged a war of independence to reclaim territories that were being allocated to other regional powers. Africa -As the people of the United States watched World War I ignite across Europe, African American citizens saw an opportunity to win the respect of their white neighbors. America was a segregated society and African Americans were considered, at best, second class citizens. Yet despite that, there were many African American men willing to serve in the nation‘s military, but even as it became apparent that the United States would enter the war in Europe, blacks were still being turned away from military service. -When the United States declared war against Germany in April of 1917, War Department planners quickly realized that the standing Army of 126,000 men would not be enough to ensure victory overseas. The standard volunteer system proved to be inadequate in raising an Army, so on 18 May 1917 Congress passed the Selective Service Act requiring all male citizens between the ages of 21 and 31 to register for the draft. Even before the act was passed, African American males from all over the country eagerly joined the war effort. They viewed the conflict as an opportunity to prove their loyalty, patriotism, and worthiness for equal treatment in the United States. Asia - Asia: Japan was given the territories of Germany to administer, most importantly the Shandong peninsula in China. They were also given the right of extraterritoriality in China, which means that Japanese could not be arrested and tried in Chinese courts, which 1) made them equal to Europeans who also had the right, and 2) let them act in a high-handed way toward the Chinese, because Japanese courts would rule in their favor. -This lead almost directly to the May 4th Movement in China, which was a popular protest against the Treaty of Versailles (the treaty that ended WW1), and turned the modernist movement in China from an intellectual exercise into a popular movement. It would indirectly lead to the establishment of the Chinese Communist Party. -Middle East: Britain and France would divide the area of the Ottoman Empire into more than a half dozen new countries: Syria, Jordan, Iraq, Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, and many of the smaller nations. Many of these countries were created by people who had little experience in the area, who were looking to benefit the European powers and pay off the local leaders who helped them. For instance, the British had promised the ruler ship of Saudi Arabia to two leaders of the Hashemite clan, one of whom got what was promised, and the other was made the King of Jordan. -More interestingly, one of the territories created was the British Mandate of Palestine, which was intended to be a place of refuge for Jews, a new homeland. This would become the basis of Israeli, and their legal claims to the area. UNDERSTAND the origins and goals of the Bolshevik movement in Russia and the circumstances that allowed them to seize power in 1917. -The Bolsheviks (a Communist movement) received their start partially under the financial backing of Japanese Military Intelligence Officers working against Tsarist Russia during the Russo-Japanese War of 1904-1905. A young man named Lenin was one of those young men receiving outside support. More fuel was added to the fire when the Russian Battleship Potemkin's crew received the bad news from the Battle of Tsushima fought on 27 May 1905. Shortly after receiving this news, the Potemkin's crew mutinied. -The Bolsheviks were not strong enough in 1905 to remove the Tsar from power. However twelve years later, in 1917, the Tsar was forced to abdicate because his troops refused to fire upon protesters (it is almost impossible for an autocrat to survive without the support of the army). For a period of a few months afterwards, Russia was ruled by the Provisional Government, which was composed mainly of liberals. The Bolsheviks then took power, in quiet, almost bloodless, armed coup. They immediately pulled Russia out of the 1st World War, and began to enact communist policies. They had many enemies in Russia, which were collectively known as the whites. They fought a civil war against the Reds (Bolsheviks). For the entirety of the civil war, the Tsar and his family were prisoners of the Bolsheviks, until they were executed. The Bolsheviks eventually won the civil war, and (technically) governed Russia until the end of the Cold War, although the Bolsheviks of 1917 would have thought their policies completely different to those towards the end of the USSR. This policy shift is mainly because a lot of true communist policies were dropped when Stalin came to power (after Lenin's death), and the USSR became a government that was against the people, not for the people. IDENTIFY the people responsible for the final terms of the Versailles peace treaty and understand its goals. -The Treaty of Versailles of 1919 is the peace treaty created as a result of six months of negotiations at the Paris Peace Conference of 1919, which put an official end to World War I between the Allies and Central Powers. The ceremonial signing of the treaty with Germany occurred June 28, 1919. The treaty was ratified on January 10, 1920 and required that Germany and its allies accept responsibility for causing the war and pay large amounts of compensation (known as war reparations). Viewed as an unfair humiliation, the treaty caused public outrage in Germany. Like many other treaties, it is named for the place of its signing: the Hall of Mirrors in the Palace of Versailles, the very place where the German Empire had been proclaimed, January 18, 1871. The choice of venue was not coincidental. Copernic -France had two key aims in the Treaty of Versailles. France wanted Germany to be held liable for WWI and to receive reparations in order to rebuild its war-torn country. Secondly, France wanted a considerably weakened Germany that posed no threat to the French. In addition, France reclaimed Alsace-Lorraine back from the Germans. Countries. -British also wanted to weaken Germany, but not to the extent of making France the sole major power on the continent. -British also liked the idea of having their navy as #1 without anyone, such as Germany, to defeat them. So basically the treaty made Germany reduce its military and pay back a large debt which caused them to become poor. So either way they could not afford a navy, and in the treaty it also did not allow them to have a large one. (Coffin: 793-813) The Emergence of Fascism in Italy Elements of fascism: The individual should distrust reason and simply obey Denial of equality – the strong have an obligation to destroy the weak Violence is an essential tool Government by an elite as the average person is incapable Totalitarian – total state control of the lives of the individuals Racism and Imperialism justified in that certain nations are elite and are obligated to control Permanent mobilization – soldier valued above all other citizens Anything is justified if it serves that states ends Fascism emphasizes victory, glorifies war, is cruel to the weak, and is irrational and intolerant. By providing a uniform, someone to blame, someone to hate and a leader, fascism restores self-respect Fascism in Italy: Background Post WWI, Italy was intensely dissatisfied with her efforts in the war and the ―spoils‖ she was awarded by the treaties. After the war, the economy was chaotic, the government was corrupt, and there was no order ―When times are bad, extreme political viewpoints become attractive‖ Benito Mussolini: After actually being a socialist for a while, Mussolini switched his views and started the Fascist Party Skilled use of Fascist tools to gain some support – parades, propaganda, great speeches Mussolini appealed to ex-servicemen, students, the middle-class and to all anti-Communists The March on Rome – 1922 Mussolini‘s Blackshirts began a march on Rome to gain power, as the Prime Minister has refused to allow the Fascists into government This created a threat of Civil War King Victor Emmanuelle feared a civil war, and offered the government to Mussolini to avoid this So, Mussolini took power with relatively little bloodshed By 1925, Italy was a Totalitarian State, ruled by a Fascist dictator, with all personal freedoms abolished, and all opposition eliminated. Fascist Imperialism Italy had a small number of overseas colonies and wanted more Mussolini declared the Mediterranean Sea as ―Mare Nostrum‖ Our Sea This would obviously threaten Britain and France‘s trade routes To show his newly found power, Mussolini decides to invade Ethiopia in 1935 Emperor Selassie appeals to the League of Nations but gets little support – the economic sanctions did not affect Italy It takes the Italian army of mechanized equipment 3 weeks to defeat the Ethiopian army of horseback and turn of the century rifles and swords The British and French decide to appease Mussolini through the Hoare- Laval Plan This meant ―Take half, leave half‖ The Rise of Mussolini -Benito Mussolini was an Italian politician who led the National Fascist Party and is credited with being one of the key figures in the creation of Fascism. he became the Prime Minister of Italy in 1922 and began using the title Il Duce by 1925. After 1936, his official title was "His Excellency Benito Mussolini, Head of Government, Duce of Fascism, and Founder of the Empire". Mussolini also created and held the supreme military rank of First Marshal of the Empire along with King Victor Emmanuel III of Italy, which gave him and the King joint supreme control over the military of Italy. Mussolini remained in power until he was replaced in 1943; for a short period after this until his death he was the leader of the Italian Social Republic. -Mussolini was among the founders of Italian fascism, which included elements of nationalism, corporatism, national syndicalism, expansionism, social progress and anti-communism in combination with censorship of subversives and state propaganda. In the years following his creation of the fascist ideology, Mussolini influenced, or achieved admiration from, a wide variety of political figures. -Among the domestic achievements of Mussolini from the years 1924–1939 were: his public works programmers such as the taming of the Pontine Marshes, the improvement of job opportunities, and public transport. Mussolini also solved the Roman Question by concluding the Lateran Treaty between the Kingdom of Italy and the Holy See. He is also credited with securing economic success in Italy's colonies and commercial dependencies. -following his rescue, Mussolini headed the Italian Social Republic in parts of Italy that were not occupied by Allied forces. In late April 1945, with total defeat looming, Mussolini attempted to escape to Switzerland, only to be captured and summarily executed near Lake Como by Communist Italian partisans. He was later hung. Weimer Germany -The Weimar Republic is the name given by historians to the federal republic and parliamentary representative democracy established in 1919 in Germany to replace the imperial form of government. It was named after Weimar, the city where the constitutional assembly took place. Following World War I, the republic emerged from the German Revolution in November 1918. In 1919, a national assembly was convened in Weimar, where a new constitution for the German Reich was written, then adopted on 11 August of that same year. The ensuing period of liberal democracy lapsed by 1930, when Hindenburg assumed dictatorial emergency powers, leading to the ascent of the nascent Nazi Party and Adolf Hitler in 1933. The legal measures taken by the new Nazi government in February and March 1933. The republic nominally continued to exist until 1945, as the constitution was never formally repealed, but the measures taken by the Nazis in the early part of their rule rendered the constitution irrelevant. Thus, 1933 is usually seen as the end of the Weimar Republic and the beginning of Hitler's Third Reich. In its fourteen years, the Weimar Republic faced numerous problems, including hyperinflation, political extremists, and continuing contentious relationships with the victors of World War I. However, it did eliminate most of the requirements of the Treaty of Versailles, in that Germany never completely met the disarmament requirements, and eventually only paid a small portion of the total reparations required by the treaty, which were reduced twice by restructuring Germany's debt through the Dawes Plan and the Young Plan, reformed the currency, and unified tax policies and the railway system. Hitler and the National Socialists -National Socialism, German National socialism‘s, also called Nazism or Nazism, totalitarian movement led by Adolf Hitler as head of the Nazi Party in Germany. In its intense nationalism, mass appeal, and dictatorial rule, National Socialism shared many elements with Italian fascism. However, Nazism was far more extreme both in its ideas and in its practice. In almost every respect it was an anti-intellectual and a theoretical movement, emphasizing the will of the charismatic dictator as the sole source of inspiration of a people and a nation, as well as a vision of annihilation of all enemies of the Aryan Volk as the one and only goal of Nazi policy. Nazi Germany & Nazi Racism -On January 30th 1933, Hitler came to power and imposed National Socialism as the principal system of government. In theory Mein Kampf became the German Bible and/or unwritten constitution and became a well-known gift at weddings as a replacement for Bibles. -The entire concept of National Socialism was a totalitarian government with a glorified dictator and the Nazi salute became a new form of bowing to the Fuehrer or an expression of loyalty to the Fuehrer and the state. Hitler even expressed the Nazi salute as his personal expression of loyalty to the German nation and the German people. -Education in schools was changed to "the greater glory of the Reich". They believed that the German Aryan Race were the superior beings on Earth. They were brought up to believe that it was imperative to fight for the greater glory of the Fatherland and that Germany was the superior nation, something emphasized in the old national anthem. -Children were enlisted and/or enlisted themselves in the Hitler Jugend which was a form of child national service. In reality they were used as lemmings or lambs to the slaughter and were effectively brainwashed to believe that they were fighting for the right cause and that they were somehow men or women. Children became objects of use to the Nazis rather than people. -Families were restricted to certain stereotypical order. Women's suffrage was completely irrelevant to the Nazis and women had only one place and that was to be subservient to their husbands and maintain the family structure. -Their lives were restricted to the home and the kitchen. They would be forced to obey their husbands, cook and clean for their family and basically act as a walking baby machine. The husband was the woman‘s only need and it was a duty for her to take care of his needs and the needs of his heirs. Women had very little rights and were not really taken seriously by the Nazis at all. Men on the other hand were expected to work to provide food for the families and had a far more liberal life than their female counterparts. -Life for everyone was basically restricted to certain roles and stereotypes and there was no real freedom for anyone. Men were conscripted to work hundreds of miles away from their homes and to live there for months on end away from their families. It was a very restricted existence for everyone. The Great Depression in the Democracies Though machine politics played a role in elections involving Franklin Delano Roosevelt, there was no serious threat that a dictatorship would form during the Depression. The US lacked the machinery to allow a dictatorship to form - secret police forces, massive standing military forces, or a slave-labor economy. The origins of the great depression The causes are: 1. Over-Production and Over-Expansion 2. Canada's Dependence on a Few Primary Products 3. Canada's Dependence on the United States 4. High Tariffs Choked Off International Trade 5. Too much Credit Buying 6. Too much credit buying of stocks 1. With this brought many immigrants to the USA. For work and new life because of the economic boom. But good things can only last a while. As like today with prices soaring and so many jobless people the amount of products produced turned to a minimal after the stock market plummeted. But with our stock market it isn‘t plummeting. 2. With the economic boom, Canada needed as much products as the US. so that they could keep their country running as strong as we were. But then Canada was able to produce their own products so they didn‘t have to buy as many products from the use. 3. Like the one before when the economic boom occurred the US was producing mass amounts of products. And with Canada needing products too they depended on the use tremendously. So when Canada could produce their own needs then the dependence they had from the use was no longer. 4. This had a major role in the depression. It‘s called greedy people. With the crazy prices in taxation other countries found ways to save their money by producing their own products. With this the use lost a great role in other countries depending on them. So that too equals less products to produce. 5. Just as todays credit cards are like yesterday‘s credits. When you have many people buying and paying for things when they don‘t have the money. It‘s like getting it for free. And sooner or later someone has to pay for it. And in this case with everything else that happened it helped the economy go bad. 6. as like the second one people are going crazy with credits and buying stocks with no money hoping that the stock will double or triple so they could pay for the credit they had borrowed and make some money. In some cases it did but with most cases it didn‘t. Making money disappear that wasn‘t there and money from other stocks taking the place for the money that disappeared. Resulting in many people losing money even ones who were not supposed to. Banks shut down as people were trying to get their money out. Stocks dropped. It turned into the great depression that could plague us again. Interwar Culture: Artists and Intellectuals & Interwar Scientific Development Britain during the Inter-War Years (1919-1938) Summary -The British government had a great deal of difficulty in adjusting to post-war politics. -Immediately after World War I, workers in many key industries began to strike, demanding higher wages, better working conditions, and shorter hours now that the war was ended. -During the early years after the war, Britain stayed out of foreign affairs and hoped that laissez- faire economics would jump-start the post-war economy. -The onset of the depression in the early 1930s tore the British Parliament apart, as disagreement over recovery measures divided the nation. Mass Culture and its Possibilities They were important in that they were an almost instantaneous means of communications, and helped to bring people and ideas together. Mass culture - the culture that is widely disseminated via the mass media (Coffin: 815- 849) Story Lines -In the 1930s Hitler‘s Germany and Mussolini‘s Italy allied with imperial Japan to form the axis. The axis eventually provoked WWII, against a group of allied powers that included Britain, the U.S, Canada, Australia, and the Soviet Union. -The Nazi Regimes military success in 1939-1941 brought almost all of Europe under German control. The Russian Victory at Stalingrad in 1942 proved to be a turning point and from 1942 to 1945 the allies progressively rolled back the German and Japanese armies, leading to allied victory in 1945. -The Nazi state embarked on a genocidal project of mass murder to exterminate its racial and ideological enemies- Europeans, Jews, homosexuals, and gypsies. -Attacks on civilian populations and the plundering of resources by occupying armies, made the WWII a total war in which the distinction between military and home front meant a little for many Europeans Chronology 1931 Japanese invasion of Manchuria 1936-1939 Spanish civil war Sept 1938 Sudeten crisis and Munich Conference Aug 1939 Nazi Soviet Pact Sept 1939 German Invasion at Poland May 1940 German Invasion of the Low Countries and France June 1941 German Invasion of the Soviet Union December 1941 Japanese attack on Pearl Harbour 1942-1943 Battle of Stalin guard 1944 D-Day Invasion May 1945 German surrender August 1945 The U.S drops atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki 1945 Japanese Surrender Core Objectives (Coffin: 863- 883) European Economic Integration -There are many long term benefits for countries to work together by implementing economic standards like the EU Economic Integration. Short-term tariffs often polarize countries away from each other and can international tensions. By agreeing to preferential trade agreements that favor countries by lowering tariffs and establishing free trade through common markets, countries can increase revenue brought in by all involved. Such long term thinking can give countries an economic edge that typically outshine narrow-sighted benefits. Economic Development in the east Economic Growth and Decline -The Middle East has experienced a growth and decline cycle over the last thirty years. -The period from 1965-1985 represented a time of tremendous economic growth. This growth was facilitated by the dramatic rise in oil prices, which were related to the 1973 Arab-Israeli War and the 1979 Iranian Revolution. -As oil prices rose to new highs, most states in the Middle East benefited from heightened revenues. Oil-producing states benefited directly in the form of high export earnings. Likewise, these states had many job opportunities available as a result of the booming economies of the Gulf. The economic growth of the 1970s and early 1980s came to a decline in 1986 when the price of oil fell dramatically from $28 per barrel in December 1985 to $10 per barrel in July 1986. The drop in price was a result of the overproduction of oil. Suddenly, the huge foreign export earnings that had driven the growth of the last two decades were drastically reduced. This decline in export earnings affected all the states in the Middle East in the following ways:  people in the oil-producing and non-oil-producing states lost jobs; and Non-oil-producing states lost foreign aid from the oil-producing states. The Welfare State -A welfare state is a government that completely provides for the welfare, or the well-being, of its citizens. Such a government provides for its citizens' physical, material and social needs
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