Semester 2 Reading Notes
The Science and Soul of the Modern Age
-In biology the modern revolution began in the 19th cent. With the publication of Charles
Darwin's theory of evolution (1859) and Gregory Mendel's theory of genetics, which was largely
ignored until the end of the century
- With the work of Hugo de Vries around the turn of the century, biological evolution came to be
interpreted in terms of mutations that result in a genetically distinct species; the survival of a
given species was thus related to its ability to adapt to its environment through such mutations.
Darwin's Revolutionary Theory
-The organisms whose variations best fit them to the environment are the ones who are most
likely to survive, reproduce, and pass those desirable variations on to the next generation.
Darwinian Theory & Religion
-Ever since Darwin first published The Origin of Species, evolutionary theory's implications for
traditional religious beliefs have been endlessly debated.
-Many people, both past and present, have assumed that evolution would utterly eliminate all of
religion's claims to validity; there have been many that feared this idea and a few that welcomed
-Still others have spent many hours speculating on the relationship between evolution and
religion, only to develop shaky syntheses or to give up, calling the problem insoluble.
-Social Darwinism is a misguided social theory that attempts to adapt Charles Darwin natural
selection principles and apply it to human society.
-This social theory, promotes a culture that embraces the concept of the "survival of the fittest"
whereby using it to explain poverty and to justify class distinctions between individuals, as well
as, the imbalances of power between races, and nations.
-It claimed that the success one achieves in society and the wealth attained, is determined by
ones genetic background. As such it was morally wrong to assist those who were weaker (poor,
less successful, or disadvantaged minorities) in society because one would unnaturally promote
the survival of the "unfit" whereby allowing them to reproduce carrying on this ―flawed‖ genetic
makeup. They were seen to deserve their outcome in life because they were ―less fit‖ than those who were
better off (better adapted). This was therefore a natural way of nature weeding out the genes
from the population - destined for extinction.
-It was therefore used to justify eugenics programs which aimed to obliterate ―undesirable‖
genes of the ―unfit‖ the less fortunate who would become extinct overtime. Thereby, creating a
superior society of people of greater health and intelligence which would lessen human
sufferings and other societal ills that would save the society's resources.
-It provided a justification for the more exploitative forms of business practices which was
supported by theories of laissez-faire economics. A system where workers were underpaid and
overworked. As such, these large business didn‘t recognize labor unions and altercate that
governments should not interfere with human competition by tampering with the natural
evolution of society. This includes, regulating the economy or helping the weaker (less fortunate)
people in society. They were for example, against the rich donating money to programs that
would support the poor and needy, as well as, the public school system (since it forced taxpayers
to pay for the education of the poor people's children). They were against all these regulation and
policies because it would allow these ―unfit‖ to pass on their ―poor quality‖ genetic traits to their
offspring - the next generation. This therefore created a great gap between wealth and poverty.
-Social Darwinism also claimed that some races or nations are fit for survival than others and are
therefore designed by nature to dominate inferior races or nations. This misguided application of
science was used to promote social and political agendas, not intended by Darwin himself. Hitler
used these ideas and incorporated them into Nazism. The Nazis used this scientific justification
to murder millions of Jews in World War II (the Holocaust) as a way of cleaning out the inferior
genetics. Others have also used this misguided and dangerous social theory to carry out serious
crime and evil on their fellow human.
-Colonialism was also seen as being natural as a way of life. This was marked by the exploitation
by a stronger country of weaker one because they saw others (natives) as being weaker and unfit
to survive. This justified the seizing and use of the weaker country's land and resources to
strengthen and enrich the stronger country.
Origin of the species
-On the Origin of Species, published on 24 November 1859, is a work of scientific literature by
Charles Darwin which is considered to be the foundation of evolutionary biology
Imperialism and Racial thought
-Imperialism and racism are connected because most imperialists are racist towards the people
they conquer. -Often imperialists will believe they are helping an uncivilized country become more advanced
and successful. They believe that the people they are conquering are an inferior race who
wouldn't know how to govern themselves unless the white people had showed them how.
However, usually the imperialists do more to hurt than to help country they are conquering and,
in the end, are only really imperializing for the benefit of their country
Imperialism and colonialism 1870-1914
- Imperialism is to rule over a people or place through colonization, military power, economic or
-Examples include the European (France, England, and Portugal) domination of regions of North
& South America after discovery of the "new world," the rule and expansion of the Roman
Empire, Japan's dominance over the West Pacific pre WW II.
-As an example; while the expansion of the Roman Empire was imperialistic, it did expand the
modernization of roads, irrigation and technology to help advance all of Europe.
-The conquering and settlement of North America by European countries and the resulting
United States destroyed and decimated the Native American's way of life.
•Industrialization, rapid technological development and the concentration of economic wealth
gave western European nations great power during this period along with the confidence to use
this power to extend their control to other parts of the world
•Colonial expansion occurred simultaneously with the development of mass politics and the
spread if consumer culture in Europe, a combination that made colonies and the power to control
them an important part of national identity for many ppl in Europe especially in Britain, France
•The new imperialism ushered in a new era of conflict: between European powers and newly
colonized ppls in Africa and Asia, and between the colonizing nations themselves as they
competed with one another for global influence and resources
1788 British establish colony in new south wales Australia
1797-1818 British expand foothold in India
1830 France invades Algeria
1839-1842 Opium Wars in china
1840 British establish colony in New Zealand 1857 Sepoy mutiny in India
1870-1900 European scramble for Africa
1875 Britain gains control of Suez canal
1882 British occupation of Egypt begins
1883-1893 France moves into Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia
1884-1885 Berlin west Africa conference
1896 Italian forces defeated by Ethiopians
1898 Fashoda crisis, Spanish American war
1898-1901 Boer war
1990 London pan African conference
1904-1905 Russo Japanese war
DEFINE Imperialism and locate the major colonies established by European powers in Africa
and Asia in the 19c
-Many African civilizations rivaled Europeans during the middle Age and many African
civilizations were actually more advanced thousands of years ago, but many people are under the
impression that Africans were all living in mud huts and never managed to accomplish anything
- no architecture, inventions, anything - throughout history.
-Most Americans believe this because of European Imperialism, colonization, slavery and
scientific racism. There were MANY glorious African civilizations before Europeans colonized
Africa, but in order to justify slavery, whites claimed that blacks were just savages who were
incapable of self-governing. They claimed that slavery was actually in our best benefit, because
life as a slave was better than what we'd have in Africa, which was untrue.
-I.e. Zimbabwe today. It's only in the state it's in today because Europeans stole the land, raped
the land of its natural resources, and divided it amongst themselves, forcing people who hated
each other, to live side by side. Now it's in chaos. That is how European Imperialism affected
Africa. This result can also be seen all over Africa.
-Beginning in the seventeenth century, Great Britain formed and maintained an economic
relationship with India. By the end of the eighteenth century, British rule of India was firmly
planted and London came to view India as the jewel of its empire. This view guided its foreign
-For decades, Britain used its military victories and naval superiority to ensure uninterrupted
routes to India and beyond, hence its island holdings in the Mediterranean, along the West
African coast, at the southern tip of Africa, and, most importantly, the Suez Canal. By the end of
the eighteenth century, Indo-British economic ties were so entrenched in a neo-mercantile system that India provided a stepping stone for British trade with China. Britain traded English
wool and Indian cotton for Chinese tea and textiles; however, as Chinese demand slackened,
Britain sought other means of attracting trade with China.
-By the 1830s, Britain realized it could make up the trade deficit with China by selling Indian
opium into the Chinese market, making opium Britain's most profitable and important crop in
world markets. Eventually, opium poured into China faster than tea poured into British hands;
soon, Chinese merchants, already addicted themselves and buying for an addicted population,
paid British opium traders in pure silver.
-The ecological effects of imperialism were mixed throughout the world. Imperialism led to the
dislocation of thousands of small societies when the Europeans drew haphazard and illogical
lines on the colonial maps. Industrial development disturbed the pristine environment of
previously undamaged territories, the traditional societies were replaced by European
businessmen and investors. While slavery had gone out of favor some time ago, African and
Asian men and women were viewed as cheap labor for European factories; therefore, slavery
UNDERSTAND the major reasons for European colonial expansion in the 19c
-By the 19th century the only European nations left in the Americas were Spain, Portugal, and
France for a brief time. France had no more interest in its affairs in the Americas; selling their
land to the US government to support the war with Britain. However most colonial expansion
was seen in South East Asia and Africa during the 19th century. Natural Recourses were really
the only reason that European nations had interest in these parts of the world. India was the
crown jewel of Great Britain, and was colonized by them until Ghandi came along.
DESCRIBE the choices faced by colonized ppls in the face of European power and culture
EXPLAIN how imperialism shaped the culture of European nations at home
Nationalism is the devotion and loyalty to one‘s own nation. It lead to imperialism because some
countries like Britain, took nationalism to meaning that they were the best country and race in
the whole world. So buy imperialising other countries, to a certain extent, they believed that they
were truly helping them, but in the end it usually ended in the other country being left worse than
before they came.
UNDERSTAND the nature of the crisis faced by European imperial powers at the end of the 19c
The greatest European powers included Rome, Holy Roman Empire, France, and the Byzantine
The First World War -Imperialism helped cause WW1 because the British ruled about 25% of the Earth's surface at
that time, and this cause Germany to be jealous. They wanted to expand as well, but they
couldn't because they were surrounded on every side by powerful countries. The fact that the
British had so many colonies around the world forced Germany to demand more and this
contributed partially to WW1.
-Industrialism helped cause WW1 because all the countries involved at that time were
developing better and better technology, and the race to become the greatest nation was on.
Germany felt threatened by the technology of some of the other countries.
•in 1914, the balance of power in Europe collapsed in a total war that mobilized the full
resources of modern industrialized nations, their global empires, and their populations
•the war transformed the relationship between the state and society. Governments conscripted an
entire generation of young men, encouraged women to work in industry and took control of the
economy to produce goods and material for the military.
•the war provoked the first successful socialist revolution in modern history when the Russian
empire collapsed and the Bolsheviks seized power in October 1917. The Russian revolution set
stage for the major ideological confrontations of the 20c
1879 The dual alliance (Germany & Austria Hungary)
1904 The triple Entente (France, Russia, Britain)
1914 Assassination of Franz Fernindad in Sarajevo
Sept 1914 Battle of the Marne
April 1915 Gallipoli campaign begins
May 1915 Italy enters the war against Austria Hungry
Feb 1916 Battle of
DEFINE the origins of WWI
Causes of World War I
The causes of World War I, which began in central Europe in July 1914, included many
intertwined factors, such as the conflicts and hostility of the four decades leading up to the war.
Militarism, alliances, imperialism, and nationalism played major roles in the conflict as well.
However, the immediate origins of the war lay in the decisions taken by statesmen and generals
during the July Crisis of 1914, casus belli for which was the assassination of Archduke Franz
-The crisis came after a long and difficult series of diplomatic clashes between the Great Powers
(Italy, France, Germany, the British Empire, Austria-Hungarian Empire and Russia) over European and colonial issues in the decade before 1914 that had left tensions high. In turn these
diplomatic clashes can be traced to changes in the balance of power in Europe since 1867. The
more immediate cause for the war was tensions over territory in the Balkans. Austria-Hungary
competed with Serbia and Russia for territory and influence in the region and they pulled the rest
of the Great Powers into the conflict through their various alliances and treaties.
The topic of the causes of World War I is one of the most studied in all of world history.
Scholars have differed significantly in their interpretations of the event.
•Arms races of the previous decades
•Previous military planning
•Intricate system of alliances
•The perceived breakdown of the balance of power in Europe
Misperceptions of intent – e.g., the German belief the United Kingdom would remain neutral
•Delays and misunderstandings in diplomatic communications
•The growth of nationalism across Europe
•Unresolved territorial disputes
•Convoluted and fragmented governance
•Imperial and colonial rivalry for wealth, power and prestige
•Economic and military rivalry in industry and trade – e.g., Pig War (Serbia)
•Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand
UNDERSTAND the circumstances that led to trench warfare on the western front, and the
consequences of the offensive strategy pursued by all sides.
WWI was a war of attrition, the two most commonly cited reasons are 1) industrialization /
railroads, and 2) the machine gun.
Combined, countries now had the ability to create (and transport to the front) as quickly as they
IDENTIFY the major effects of the war on civilian life
-The effect that World War I had upon civilians was devastating. WWI was a war that affected
civilians on an unprecedented scale. Civilians became a military target. The economic impact of WWI meant that there were shortages of all produce, most importantly food. Consequently,
rationing of bread, tea, sugar and meat was introduced in 1918. This was widely welcomed by
the British public, as a voluntary rationing system had been introduced a year before, and people
were eager to see their neighbours taking part as they were. Living standards plummeted, and the
post-war economic state of Europe was at mid-19th century levels. During the war, 8 to 10
million soldiers were killed in battle, and 22 million were injured. This meant that nearly every
family lost someone. Population losses were enormous. Propaganda at the time also gave the
false impression to the public that everything was ok, when in reality so many people were
-After the Battle of the Somme, July 1st 1916. 60,000 were injured and 20,000 were dead. This
incident was famously made into a film. However, it had a major impact on the British civilians,
as this-along with Siegfried Sassoon's anti-war poetry, made a hole in the government's
propaganda. The public were finally beginning to see the reality of the war.
-World War One also had a large impact upon the role of Women. With all the men at war as
soldiers, Women began working for a living. This became crucial in 1915, as the munitions crisis
began. Not only were women working in factories and coal mines, they were called upon to
tackle yet another issue. After the German submarine blockade in 1917, Britain was unable to
import goods-including food. The Women's Land Army was formed in 1917. They strove to
maximise the country's outcome, and to feed the nation.
EXPLAIN the wars effect on territories beyond Europe‘s borders, in the Middle East, in Africa
The resolution of World War I effectively laid the foundations for the modern Middle East. After
the defeat of the Ottoman Empire - a regional powerhouse that controlled the Middle East until
its dissolution 1918 - the national boundaries for each country were established in different ways,
either by recognized independence or as temporary mandates under either British or French rule.
-Saudi Arabia was already an independent state, and Turkey waged a war of independence to
reclaim territories that were being allocated to other regional powers.
-As the people of the United States watched World War I ignite across Europe, African
American citizens saw an opportunity to win the respect of their white neighbors. America was a
segregated society and African Americans were considered, at best, second class citizens. Yet
despite that, there were many African American men willing to serve in the nation‘s military, but
even as it became apparent that the United States would enter the war in Europe, blacks were still
being turned away from military service.
-When the United States declared war against Germany in April of 1917, War Department planners quickly realized that the standing Army of 126,000 men would not be enough to ensure
victory overseas. The standard volunteer system proved to be inadequate in raising an Army, so
on 18 May 1917 Congress passed the Selective Service Act requiring all male citizens between
the ages of 21 and 31 to register for the draft. Even before the act was passed, African American
males from all over the country eagerly joined the war effort. They viewed the conflict as an
opportunity to prove their loyalty, patriotism, and worthiness for equal treatment in the United
- Asia: Japan was given the territories of Germany to administer, most importantly the Shandong
peninsula in China. They were also given the right of extraterritoriality in China, which means
that Japanese could not be arrested and tried in Chinese courts, which 1) made them equal to
Europeans who also had the right, and 2) let them act in a high-handed way toward the Chinese,
because Japanese courts would rule in their favor.
-This lead almost directly to the May 4th Movement in China, which was a popular protest
against the Treaty of Versailles (the treaty that ended WW1), and turned the modernist
movement in China from an intellectual exercise into a popular movement. It would indirectly
lead to the establishment of the Chinese Communist Party.
-Middle East: Britain and France would divide the area of the Ottoman Empire into more than a
half dozen new countries: Syria, Jordan, Iraq, Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, and many of the smaller
nations. Many of these countries were created by people who had little experience in the area,
who were looking to benefit the European powers and pay off the local leaders who helped them.
For instance, the British had promised the ruler ship of Saudi Arabia to two leaders of the
Hashemite clan, one of whom got what was promised, and the other was made the King of
-More interestingly, one of the territories created was the British Mandate of Palestine, which
was intended to be a place of refuge for Jews, a new homeland. This would become the basis of
Israeli, and their legal claims to the area.
UNDERSTAND the origins and goals of the Bolshevik movement in Russia and the
circumstances that allowed them to seize power in 1917.
-The Bolsheviks (a Communist movement) received their start partially under the financial
backing of Japanese Military Intelligence Officers working against Tsarist Russia during the
Russo-Japanese War of 1904-1905. A young man named Lenin was one of those young men
receiving outside support. More fuel was added to the fire when the Russian Battleship
Potemkin's crew received the bad news from the Battle of Tsushima fought on 27 May 1905.
Shortly after receiving this news, the Potemkin's crew mutinied.
-The Bolsheviks were not strong enough in 1905 to remove the Tsar from power. However
twelve years later, in 1917, the Tsar was forced to abdicate because his troops refused to fire
upon protesters (it is almost impossible for an autocrat to survive without the support of the army). For a period of a few months afterwards, Russia was ruled by the Provisional
Government, which was composed mainly of liberals. The Bolsheviks then took power, in quiet,
almost bloodless, armed coup. They immediately pulled Russia out of the 1st World War, and
began to enact communist policies. They had many enemies in Russia, which were collectively
known as the whites. They fought a civil war against the Reds (Bolsheviks). For the entirety of
the civil war, the Tsar and his family were prisoners of the Bolsheviks, until they were executed.
The Bolsheviks eventually won the civil war, and (technically) governed Russia until the end of
the Cold War, although the Bolsheviks of 1917 would have thought their policies completely
different to those towards the end of the USSR. This policy shift is mainly because a lot of true
communist policies were dropped when Stalin came to power (after Lenin's death), and the
USSR became a government that was against the people, not for the people.
IDENTIFY the people responsible for the final terms of the Versailles peace treaty and
understand its goals.
-The Treaty of Versailles of 1919 is the peace treaty created as a result of six months of
negotiations at the Paris Peace Conference of 1919, which put an official end to World War I
between the Allies and Central Powers. The ceremonial signing of the treaty with Germany
occurred June 28, 1919. The treaty was ratified on January 10, 1920 and required that Germany
and its allies accept responsibility for causing the war and pay large amounts of compensation
(known as war reparations). Viewed as an unfair humiliation, the treaty caused public outrage in
Germany. Like many other treaties, it is named for the place of its signing: the Hall of Mirrors in
the Palace of Versailles, the very place where the German Empire had been proclaimed, January
18, 1871. The choice of venue was not coincidental.
-France had two key aims in the Treaty of Versailles. France wanted Germany to be held liable
for WWI and to receive reparations in order to rebuild its war-torn country. Secondly, France
wanted a considerably weakened Germany that posed no threat to the French. In addition, France
reclaimed Alsace-Lorraine back from the Germans. Countries.
-British also wanted to weaken Germany, but not to the extent of making France the sole major
power on the continent.
-British also liked the idea of having their navy as #1 without anyone, such as Germany, to
defeat them. So basically the treaty made Germany reduce its military and pay back a large debt
which caused them to become poor. So either way they could not afford a navy, and in the treaty
it also did not allow them to have a large one.
The Emergence of Fascism in Italy
Elements of fascism:
The individual should distrust reason and simply obey Denial of equality – the strong have an obligation to destroy the weak
Violence is an essential tool
Government by an elite as the average person is incapable
Totalitarian – total state control of the lives of the individuals
Racism and Imperialism justified in that certain nations are elite and are
obligated to control
Permanent mobilization – soldier valued above all other citizens
Anything is justified if it serves that states ends
Fascism emphasizes victory, glorifies war, is cruel to the weak, and is
irrational and intolerant.
By providing a uniform, someone to blame, someone to hate and a
leader, fascism restores self-respect
Fascism in Italy: Background
Post WWI, Italy was intensely dissatisfied with her efforts in the war
and the ―spoils‖ she was awarded by the treaties.
After the war, the economy was chaotic, the government was corrupt,
and there was no order
―When times are bad, extreme political viewpoints become attractive‖
After actually being a socialist for a while, Mussolini switched his views
and started the Fascist Party
Skilled use of Fascist tools to gain some support – parades, propaganda,
Mussolini appealed to ex-servicemen, students, the middle-class and to
The March on Rome – 1922 Mussolini‘s Blackshirts began a march on Rome to gain power, as the
Prime Minister has refused to allow the Fascists into government
This created a threat of Civil War
King Victor Emmanuelle feared a civil war, and offered the government
to Mussolini to avoid this
So, Mussolini took power with relatively little bloodshed
By 1925, Italy was a Totalitarian State, ruled by a Fascist dictator, with
all personal freedoms abolished, and all opposition eliminated.
Italy had a small number of overseas colonies and wanted more
Mussolini declared the Mediterranean Sea as ―Mare Nostrum‖ Our Sea
This would obviously threaten Britain and France‘s trade routes
To show his newly found power, Mussolini decides to invade Ethiopia
Emperor Selassie appeals to the League of Nations but gets little support
– the economic sanctions did not affect Italy
It takes the Italian army of mechanized equipment 3 weeks to defeat the
Ethiopian army of horseback and turn of the century rifles and swords
The British and French decide to appease Mussolini through the Hoare-
This meant ―Take half, leave half‖
The Rise of Mussolini
-Benito Mussolini was an Italian politician who led the National Fascist Party and is credited
with being one of the key figures in the creation of Fascism. he became the Prime Minister of
Italy in 1922 and began using the title Il Duce by 1925. After 1936, his official title was "His
Excellency Benito Mussolini, Head of Government, Duce of Fascism, and Founder of the
Empire". Mussolini also created and held the supreme military rank of First Marshal of the
Empire along with King Victor Emmanuel III of Italy, which gave him and the King joint
supreme control over the military of Italy. Mussolini remained in power until he was replaced in
1943; for a short period after this until his death he was the leader of the Italian Social Republic. -Mussolini was among the founders of Italian fascism, which included elements of nationalism,
corporatism, national syndicalism, expansionism, social progress and anti-communism in
combination with censorship of subversives and state propaganda. In the years following his
creation of the fascist ideology, Mussolini influenced, or achieved admiration from, a wide
variety of political figures.
-Among the domestic achievements of Mussolini from the years 1924–1939 were: his public
works programmers such as the taming of the Pontine Marshes, the improvement of job
opportunities, and public transport. Mussolini also solved the Roman Question by concluding the
Lateran Treaty between the Kingdom of Italy and the Holy See. He is also credited with securing
economic success in Italy's colonies and commercial dependencies.
-following his rescue, Mussolini headed the Italian Social Republic in parts of Italy that were not
occupied by Allied forces. In late April 1945, with total defeat looming, Mussolini attempted to
escape to Switzerland, only to be captured and summarily executed near Lake Como by
Communist Italian partisans. He was later hung.
-The Weimar Republic is the name given by historians to the federal republic and parliamentary
representative democracy established in 1919 in Germany to replace the imperial form of
government. It was named after Weimar, the city where the constitutional assembly took place.
Following World War I, the republic emerged from the German Revolution in November 1918.
In 1919, a national assembly was convened in Weimar, where a new constitution for the German
Reich was written, then adopted on 11 August of that same year. The ensuing period of liberal
democracy lapsed by 1930, when Hindenburg assumed dictatorial emergency powers, leading to
the ascent of the nascent Nazi Party and Adolf Hitler in 1933. The legal measures taken by the
new Nazi government in February and March 1933. The republic nominally continued to exist
until 1945, as the constitution was never formally repealed, but the measures taken by the Nazis
in the early part of their rule rendered the constitution irrelevant. Thus, 1933 is usually seen as
the end of the Weimar Republic and the beginning of Hitler's Third Reich.
In its fourteen years, the Weimar Republic faced numerous problems, including hyperinflation,
political extremists, and continuing contentious relationships with the victors of World War I.
However, it did eliminate most of the requirements of the Treaty of Versailles, in that Germany
never completely met the disarmament requirements, and eventually only paid a small portion of
the total reparations required by the treaty, which were reduced twice by restructuring Germany's
debt through the Dawes Plan and the Young Plan, reformed the currency, and unified tax policies
and the railway system.
Hitler and the National Socialists
-National Socialism, German National socialism‘s, also called Nazism or Nazism, totalitarian
movement led by Adolf Hitler as head of the Nazi Party in Germany. In its intense nationalism,
mass appeal, and dictatorial rule, National Socialism shared many elements with Italian fascism. However, Nazism was far more extreme both in its ideas and in its practice. In almost every
respect it was an anti-intellectual and a theoretical movement, emphasizing the will of the
charismatic dictator as the sole source of inspiration of a people and a nation, as well as a vision
of annihilation of all enemies of the Aryan Volk as the one and only goal of Nazi policy.
Nazi Germany & Nazi Racism
-On January 30th 1933, Hitler came to power and imposed National Socialism as the principal
system of government. In theory Mein Kampf became the German Bible and/or unwritten
constitution and became a well-known gift at weddings as a replacement for Bibles.
-The entire concept of National Socialism was a totalitarian government with a glorified dictator
and the Nazi salute became a new form of bowing to the Fuehrer or an expression of loyalty to
the Fuehrer and the state. Hitler even expressed the Nazi salute as his personal expression of
loyalty to the German nation and the German people.
-Education in schools was changed to "the greater glory of the Reich". They believed that the
German Aryan Race were the superior beings on Earth. They were brought up to believe that it
was imperative to fight for the greater glory of the Fatherland and that Germany was the superior
nation, something emphasized in the old national anthem.
-Children were enlisted and/or enlisted themselves in the Hitler Jugend which was a form of
child national service. In reality they were used as lemmings or lambs to the slaughter and were
effectively brainwashed to believe that they were fighting for the right cause and that they were
somehow men or women. Children became objects of use to the Nazis rather than people.
-Families were restricted to certain stereotypical order. Women's suffrage was completely
irrelevant to the Nazis and women had only one place and that was to be subservient to their
husbands and maintain the family structure.
-Their lives were restricted to the home and the kitchen. They would be forced to obey their
husbands, cook and clean for their family and basically act as a walking baby machine. The
husband was the woman‘s only need and it was a duty for her to take care of his needs and the
needs of his heirs. Women had very little rights and were not really taken seriously by the Nazis
at all. Men on the other hand were expected to work to provide food for the families and had a
far more liberal life than their female counterparts.
-Life for everyone was basically restricted to certain roles and stereotypes and there was no real
freedom for anyone. Men were conscripted to work hundreds of miles away from their homes
and to live there for months on end away from their families. It was a very restricted existence
The Great Depression in the Democracies
Though machine politics played a role in elections involving Franklin Delano Roosevelt, there
was no serious threat that a dictatorship would form during the Depression. The US lacked the machinery to allow a dictatorship to form - secret police forces, massive standing military forces,
or a slave-labor economy.
The origins of the great depression
The causes are:
1. Over-Production and Over-Expansion
2. Canada's Dependence on a Few Primary Products
3. Canada's Dependence on the United States
4. High Tariffs Choked Off International Trade
5. Too much Credit Buying
6. Too much credit buying of stocks
1. With this brought many immigrants to the USA. For work and new life because of the
economic boom. But good things can only last a while. As like today with prices soaring and so
many jobless people the amount of products produced turned to a minimal after the stock market
plummeted. But with our stock market it isn‘t plummeting.
2. With the economic boom, Canada needed as much products as the US. so that they could keep
their country running as strong as we were. But then Canada was able to produce their own
products so they didn‘t have to buy as many products from the use.
3. Like the one before when the economic boom occurred the US was producing mass amounts
of products. And with Canada needing products too they depended on the use tremendously. So
when Canada could produce their own needs then the dependence they had from the use was no
4. This had a major role in the depression. It‘s called greedy people. With the crazy prices in
taxation other countries found ways to save their money by producing their own products. With
this the use lost a great role in other countries depending on them. So that too equals less
products to produce.
5. Just as todays credit cards are like yesterday‘s credits. When you have many people buying
and paying for things when they don‘t have the money. It‘s like getting it for free. And sooner or
later someone has to pay for it. And in this case with everything else that happened it helped the
economy go bad.
6. as like the second one people are going crazy with credits and buying stocks with no money
hoping that the stock will double or triple so they could pay for the credit they had borrowed and
make some money. In some cases it did but with most cases it didn‘t. Making money disappear that wasn‘t there and money from other stocks taking the place for the money that disappeared.
Resulting in many people losing money even ones who were not supposed to. Banks shut down
as people were trying to get their money out. Stocks dropped. It turned into the great depression
that could plague us again.
Interwar Culture: Artists and Intellectuals & Interwar Scientific Development
Britain during the Inter-War Years (1919-1938)
-The British government had a great deal of difficulty in adjusting to post-war politics.
-Immediately after World War I, workers in many key industries began to strike, demanding
higher wages, better working conditions, and shorter hours now that the war was ended.
-During the early years after the war, Britain stayed out of foreign affairs and hoped that laissez-
faire economics would jump-start the post-war economy.
-The onset of the depression in the early 1930s tore the British Parliament apart, as disagreement
over recovery measures divided the nation.
Mass Culture and its Possibilities
They were important in that they were an almost instantaneous means of communications, and
helped to bring people and ideas together.
Mass culture - the culture that is widely disseminated via the mass media
(Coffin: 815- 849)
-In the 1930s Hitler‘s Germany and Mussolini‘s Italy allied with imperial Japan to form the axis.
The axis eventually provoked WWII, against a group of allied powers that included Britain, the
U.S, Canada, Australia, and the Soviet Union.
-The Nazi Regimes military success in 1939-1941 brought almost all of Europe under German
control. The Russian Victory at Stalingrad in 1942 proved to be a turning point and from 1942 to
1945 the allies progressively rolled back the German and Japanese armies, leading to allied
victory in 1945.
-The Nazi state embarked on a genocidal project of mass murder to exterminate its racial and
ideological enemies- Europeans, Jews, homosexuals, and gypsies. -Attacks on civilian populations and the plundering of resources by occupying armies, made the
WWII a total war in which the distinction between military and home front meant a little for
1931 Japanese invasion of Manchuria
1936-1939 Spanish civil war
Sept 1938 Sudeten crisis and Munich Conference
Aug 1939 Nazi Soviet Pact
Sept 1939 German Invasion at Poland
May 1940 German Invasion of the Low Countries and France
June 1941 German Invasion of the Soviet Union
December 1941 Japanese attack on Pearl Harbour
1942-1943 Battle of Stalin guard
1944 D-Day Invasion
May 1945 German surrender
August 1945 The U.S drops atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki
1945 Japanese Surrender
(Coffin: 863- 883)
European Economic Integration
-There are many long term benefits for countries to work together by implementing economic
standards like the EU Economic Integration. Short-term tariffs often polarize countries away
from each other and can international tensions. By agreeing to preferential trade agreements that
favor countries by lowering tariffs and establishing free trade through common markets,
countries can increase revenue brought in by all involved. Such long term thinking can give
countries an economic edge that typically outshine narrow-sighted benefits.
Economic Development in the east
Economic Growth and Decline
-The Middle East has experienced a growth and decline cycle over the last thirty years.
-The period from 1965-1985 represented a time of tremendous economic growth. This growth
was facilitated by the dramatic rise in oil prices, which were related to the 1973 Arab-Israeli War
and the 1979 Iranian Revolution.
-As oil prices rose to new highs, most states in the Middle East benefited from heightened
revenues. Oil-producing states benefited directly in the form of high export earnings. Likewise,
these states had many job opportunities available as a result of the booming economies of the
Gulf. The economic growth of the 1970s and early 1980s came to a decline in 1986 when the price of
oil fell dramatically from $28 per barrel in December 1985 to $10 per barrel in July 1986. The
drop in price was a result of the overproduction of oil. Suddenly, the huge foreign export
earnings that had driven the growth of the last two decades were drastically reduced. This decline
in export earnings affected all the states in the Middle East in the following ways:
people in the oil-producing and non-oil-producing states lost jobs; and
Non-oil-producing states lost foreign aid from the oil-producing states.
The Welfare State
-A welfare state is a government that completely provides for the welfare, or the well-being, of
its citizens. Such a government provides for its citizens' physical, material and social needs