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History Readings-Semester 1.docx

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University of Toronto St. George
Kenneth Bartlett

The French Revolution (coffin: 544,550) Story lines •The French revolution of 1798-1799 overthrew Louis XIV and created a government committed in principle to the rule of law, the liberty of the individual and an idea of the nation as a sovereign body of citizens. These political changes also opened the way for the expression of a wide variety of social grievances by peasants, laborers, women, and other social groups in Europe •The French revolution encouraged the spread of democratic ideas, but it also led to an increase in the power of centralized nation states in Europe. The pressures of the revolutionary wars led to an increase in the power of centralized nation states in Europe. The pressures of the revolutionary wars led governments to develop larger national bureaucracies, modern professional armies, new legal codes and new tax structures. •The French revolution was a part of a broader set of changes which rocked the Atlantic world at the end if the eighteenth century. Along with the Haitian revolution and the American Revolution, this wave if cataclysmic change reshaped the political order of Europe and the Americas. Chronology May 1789: The estates general meets June 1789: The tennis court oath July 1789: The fall of bastille Sept 1792: First French republic Jan 1793: Execution of king Louis XIV Sept 1793-july 1794: The terror 1798-1799: Napoleons invasion of Egypt Jan 1804: Haitian independence, napoleon crowned emperor, civil code, invasion of Spain 1812: Invasion of Russia 1814-1815: Napoleons abdication and defeat Summary of Events The Tennis Court Oath -The oath was taken on 20th of June 1789 - When Louis summoned the Estates-General to deal with the crises the country faced it didn't go how he hoped -The members of the Third Estate stood up to him and in response, he had them locked out of the assembly -Instead they assembled in the tennis courts of Versailles, there they took an oath not to disband until a new constitution was introduced - The oath was taken by most of the Third Estate and a few poorer members of the First Estate, mainly the parish priests - It set them on a collision course with Louis, so it can be considered the first act of the Revolution since it was the first time they stood together and fought back Feudalism and Unfair Taxation -Years of feudal oppression and fiscal mismanagement contributed to a French society that was ripe for revolt - Noting a downward economic spiral in the late 1700s, King Louis XVI brought in a number of financial advisors to review the weakened French treasury -Each advisor reached the same conclusion—that France needed a radical change in the way it taxed the public—and each advisor was, in turn, kicked out. -Finally, the king realized that this taxation problem really did need to be addressed, so he appointed a new controller general of finance, Charles de Calonne, in 1783 - Calonne suggested that, among other things, France begin taxing the previously exempt nobility -The nobility refused, even after Calonne pleaded with them during the Assembly of Notables in 1787 The Estates-General -In a final act of desperation, Louis XVI decided in 1789 to convene the Estates-General, an ancient assembly consisting of three different estates that each represented a portion of the French population - If the Estates-General could agree on a tax solution, it would be implemented. However, since two of the three estates—the clergy and the nobility—were tax-exempt, the attainment of any such solution was unlikely. -The outdated rules of order for the Estates-General gave each estate a single vote, despite the fact that the Third Estate—consisting of the general French public—was many times larger than either of the first two -Feuds quickly broke out over this disparity and would prove to be irreconcilable. Realizing that its numbers gave it an automatic advantage, the Third Estate declared itself the sovereign National Assembly - Within days of the announcement, many members of the other two estates had switched allegiances over to this revolutionary new assembly The Bastille and the Great Fear -Shortly after the National Assembly formed, its members took the Tennis Court Oath, swearing that they would not relent in their efforts until a new constitution had been agreed upon - The National Assembly‘s revolutionary spirit galvanized France, manifesting in a number of different ways - In Paris, citizens stormed the city‘s largest prison, the Bastille, in pursuit of arms. In the countryside, peasants and farmers revolted against their feudal contracts by attacking the manors and estates of their landlords - Dubbed the ―Great Fear,‖ these rural attacks continued until the early August issuing of the August Decrees, which freed those peasants from their oppressive contracts - Shortly thereafter, the assembly released the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which established a proper judicial code and the autonomy of the French people Rifts in the Assembly -Though the National Assembly did succeed in drafting a constitution, the relative peace of the moment was short-lived - A rift slowly grew between the radical and moderate assembly members, while the common laborers and workers began to feel overlooked - When Louis XVI was caught in a foiled escape plot, the assembly became especially divided -The moderate Girondins took a stance in favor of retaining the constitutional monarchy, while the radical Jacobins wanted the king completely out of the picture -Outside of France, some neighboring countries feared that France‘s revolutionary spirit would spread beyond French land -In response, they issued the Declaration of Pillnitz, which insisted that the French return Louis XVI to the throne -French leaders interpreted the declaration as hostile, so the Girondin-led assembly declared war on Austria and Prussia The Reign of Terror -The first acts of the newly named National Convention were the abolition of the monarchy and the declaration of France as a republic - In January 1793, the convention tried and executed Louis XVI on the grounds of treason. - Despite the creation of the Committee of Public Safety, the war with Austria and Prussia went poorly for France, and foreign forces pressed on into French territory -Enraged citizens overthrew the Girondin-led National Convention, and the Jacobins, led by Maximillian Robespierre, took control -French soldiers and implementing laws to stabilize the economy -Robespierre, growing increasingly paranoid about counterrevolutionary influences, embarked upon a Reign of Terror in late 1793–1794, during which he had more than 15,000 people executed at the guillotine -When the French army successfully removed foreign invaders and the economy finally stabilized, however, Robespierre no longer had any justification for his extreme actions, and he himself was arrested in July 1794 and executed The Thermidorian Reaction and the Directory -The era following the ousting of Robespierre was known as the Thermidorian Reaction, and a period of governmental restructuring began, leading to the new Constitution of 1795 and a significantly more conservative National Convention - To control executive responsibilities and appointments, a group known as the Directory was formed -Though it had no legislative abilities, the Directory‘s abuse of power soon came to rival that of any of the tyrannous revolutionaries France had faced Napoleon -French armies, especially those led by young general Napoleon Bonaparte, were making progress in nearly every direction -Napoleon arrived in time to lead a coup against the Directory in 1799, eventually stepping up and naming himself ―first consul‖—effectively, the leader of France. With Napoleon at the helm, the Revolution ended, and France entered a fifteen-year period of military rule Religion, warfare, and sovereignty (Coffin: 434-440) Story lines •The religious differences that begun to divide Europe during martin Luther‘s lifetime soon erupted into prolonged, widespread warfare. At the same time, deeply entrenched political convictions contributed to the length, ferocity and extent of these wars. •social and economic tensions also played a role in te violence of this period, and these manifested themselves in new forms of intolerance and persecution. For the first time, accusations of witch craft were supported by intellectual arguments and sanctioned by the state •States themselves were becoming more powerful, as other sources of authority seemed less secure. Political philosophers and politicians worked to bolster this power and to define the sovereignty of the state The Thirty Years' Wars 1733-1763 This conflict includes three wars: 1. The War of Polish Succession 1733-1739 2. The War of Austrian Succession 1740-1748 3. The Seven Years' War 1756-1763 1. War of Polish Succession-was fought not in Poland but in Belgium, Lorraine, Lombardy, Naples and Sicily. The conflict began over Polish succession but ended in an attempt to partition Austria and ended with Treaty of Vienna 1736. The terms of this treaty included: A. Augustus should be king of Poland B. Austria should give up Naples and Sicily and Spanish Prince Don Carlos should be their king C. Austria should have Duchy of Tuscany in Italy in return for which they would allow France to have the territory of Lorraine. 2. War of Austrian Succession- when Frederick the Great invaded Silesia. The event was precipitated when King Charles VI of Austria died in October 1740 leaving no son to succeed him. Charles had gone to great lengths to assure that his throne would go to Maria Theresa, his daughter. But Bavaria disagreed. During the internal conflict which followed, Frederick took Silesia. Frederick allied himself with Bavaria and invited France and Spain to take whatever they wanted from Austria. England allied with Austria because they, traditionally, not like France. Peace was finally made in 1745 with the Peace of Aix-la- Chapelle: A. Maria was recognized as ruler of Austria B. Austria ceded Silesia to Frederick C. Parma was ceded to Spain (from Austria) D. Lombardy was ceded to Sardinia E. All other conquered lands were restored to their pre-1740 condition. 3. The Seven Years' War (in Europe) - On the American continent, the French fort, Duquesne, on the Upper Ohio River near modern Pittsburgh, was attacked by George Washington. Meanwhile in Europe the conflict revolved around an attempt to take as much of Prussia from Frederick as possible. The conflict ended with the Peace of Paris 1763 and the Treaty of Hapsburg. Peace of Paris allowed: A. France gave England all territories in New World east of the Mississippi but not New Orleans B. West Indies islands were also given to England C. France gave Spain as a compensation for Florida New Orleans and all French territory west of the Mississippi D. In India the French east India Company was permitted to keep 5 trading posts but was to keep out of native politics. Reasons why Spain Declined -Spain's failure to invest the wealth which it stole from the New World -The sinking of the Spanish Armada in 1588 -Spain's failure to form a commonwealth with its colonies so that they would not seek independence -Spain's becoming involved in expensive wars in Europe Reason for growth in France -Terrain of colonies, New France was a long holding of land which was sparsely populated, largely swampy, in the south while the north had no access to shipping past Quebec to France and was largely cold -The French Colonies unlike the English also received no military support from mainland France, they were independent militarily and forced to raise their own arms. There is no urge to move where you might be at risk Cardinal Richelieu -Richelieu was the Chief Minister of Louis XIII, a weak ruler who basically left the running of the country to Richelieu Richelieu's Main Achievements -He broke the independent power the French aristocracy had enjoyed under previous kings, removing many of their privileges and important positions they held -Many feudal rights and laws were revoked by Richelieu -The aristocracy had often pursued independent aims, contracting alliances with foreign powers and doing much as they pleased; Richelieu ended this, subordinating local and religious interests to those of the state and its head, the King. -The Thirty Years War. Catholic successes were making the Hapsburgs, who controlled Spain, Belgium, and much of Germany too powerful; France was being encircled, so Richelieu subsidized Protestant powers fighting the Hapsburgs -By 1660 France had replaced Spain as the dominant European nation. The Fronde -Series of civil wars in France during the minority of Louis XIV - The Fronde was in part an attempt to check the growing power of royal government, but its failure paved the way for the absolutism of Louis XIV's reign First phase -The Fronde of the Parliament, was an attempt to place constitutional limits on the queen regent, Anne of Austria, and her chief minister, Jules Mazarin. Uprisings forced the government to concede to the Parliament‘s demands Second phase -The Fronde of the Princes, sprang from aristocratic opposition to Mazarin. The military leader the Great Cond was arrested, causing his friends to rebel - His supporters joined the Parisian party (the Old Fronde) in successfully calling for Cond's release and Mazarin's resignation. Cond lost his position when Anne joined with the Old Fronde against him, precipitating the second war of the princes -After losses in battle, he fled. The king entered Paris in triumph in 1652, followed by Mazarin in 1653. The Fronde was the last serious challenge to the monarchy until the French Revolution. The English Civil War (Coffin 446-455) -The English Civil War started in 1642 when Charles I raised his royal standard in Nottingham. The split between Charles and Parliament was such that neither side was willing to back down over the principles that they held and war was inevitable as a way in which all problems could be solved -The country split into those who supported the king and those who supported Parliament – the classic ingredients for a civil war -Armies lacked mobility and the time taken to collect the most basic of equipment meant that there were long periods of time when no fighting was taking place despite England being at war at the time -The weather was also a major determining factor in whether armies could fight or not; as a result, moving around armies were difficult -There were only three major battles in the English Civil War: 1. Edge Hill (1642) The first major battle of the English Civil War was at Edge Hill. While both sides claimed success, there was no decisive result from this battle. The following year, 1643, saw a series of smaller battles that were equally as indecisive in the sense that neither side dealt a fatal blow to the other. In 1643, Oliver Cromwell came more and more to the fore with his desire for a New Model Army. This new force was to have a decisive impact on the course of the English Civil War. 2. Marston Moor (1644) In 1644, Charles lost control of the north of England as a result of a major defeat at the Battle of Marston Moor. The combined armies of Parliament and the Scots heavily defeated the Royalists. 3. Naseby (1645) In June 1645, Cromwell‘s New Model Army inflicted a fatal blow to the king‘s army at the Battle of Naseby. Charles did not recover from this defeat and his cause was lost. -In 1646, Charles surrendered to the Scots rather than to Parliament. -Charles was tried at Westminster Hall in January 1649, and found guilty that he had ―traitorously and maliciously levied war against the present Parliament and the people therein represented.‖ -Charles was executed on January 30th, 1649. The age of dissent and division, 1500-1600 (coffin: 398-425) Story lines •The movement catalyzed by martin Luther‘s challenge to the church grew out of much earlier attempts at reform, but it was also a response to more recent religious and political developments •Within a decade after Luther‘s break with Rome, religious dissent was widespread and a number of different protestant faiths were taking hold in various regions of Europe •Protestantism not only transformed the political landscape of Europe, it changed the basic structures of the family attitudes toward marriage and sexuality which still shape our lives •These changes also affected the structures and doctrine of the roman catholic church, which re-emerged as an institution different in many ways from the medieval church, and more similar of that of today Chronology 1517: Luther posts ninety five theses 1520: Lutheranism becomes the official religion of Scandinavian countries 1521: Luther is excommunicated at the diet of worms 1525: Swabian peasants revolt 1529: Luther breaks with Zwingli 1534: Henry VIII establishes the church of England 1534: Ignatius Loyola founds the society of Jesus 1541: Geneva adopts a theocratic government based on Calvinism 1545-1563: Council of Trent is convened 1559: Elizabeth re-establishes Protestantism in England 1564: Index of prohibited books is published for the first time Core objectives DEFINE the main premises of Lutheranism: 1. Have faith in Jesus, not good works, brings salvation. 2. The Bible is the final source for the truth about God, not a church or its priests 3. Lutheranism said that the church was made up of believers, not just the clergy. A. sola fide- justification by faith alone B. priesthood of all believers-both clergy and non-clergy can take both types of communion (bread + wine at mass) which in catholic church at the time, was reserved for clergy members only EXPLAIN why Switzerland emerged as an important protestant center: -Switzerland was home to two of the leading figures of the Protestant reformation which swept across Europe in the 16th century, Ulrich Zwingli and Jean Calvin -Geneva in particular became a stronghold of Protestantism, and a haven for refugees -These refugees in turn made an important contribution to the city's intellectual and economic life -Protestants valued rationality and hard work, and saw wealth as a reward from God, an ethos which helped lay the foundations of modern Swiss prosperity. -The 1848 constitution which created the federal Swiss state as we know it today, was drawn up by Protestant radicals who saw greater centralisation as essential to develop an industrialised economy -The federal state created a single currency system to replace the different cantonal currencies, and lifted internal trade barriers IDENTIFY the ways in which family structures and values changed during the reformation: -In countries that embraced the reformation, convents were closed down, and nuns forced to enter secular life -It also meant that there was no longer a respectabl
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