Yuan Shikai :President of China 1912-16
1.Yuan and other parties
a)In 1912 Sun agreed to step down for Yuan as Provisional President on 3 conditions
i.The capital would remain Nanjing
ii.YSK would come to Nanjing to be Provisional President
iii.Yuan would respect the constitution drawn up by Parliament
b)Yuan’s initial Cabinet contained a lot of his own supporters rather than members of
Initiallyrelations with Sun were quite good. Sun had been appointed director of
c)In December 1912 elections were held for Parliament. Song Jiaoren persuaded 4
smaller groups to join the Tongmeng hui to form the Guomindang or Nationalist Party
(which was Sun’s party). The Guomindang won more seats than other parties. By Feb.
1913 the Guomindang had a majority in Parliament and Sung campaigned for
Guomindang control of the cabinet.
Sung was assassinated in March 1913.
d)In April 1913 Yuan obtained a massive loan (25 million pounds) from a Foreign
banking consortium - without the consent of Parliament. Sun and others opposed this
which led to a break down of relations between Yuan and the revolutionaries.
e)In June/July 1913 7 provinces declared independence - this was the “Second
Revolution” - this time against Yuan. Yuan’s troops rapidly defeated the rebellion. Sun
fled to Japan.
2.Yuan and Parliament
a)Following the opposition to the Reorganization loan, Yuan surrounded Parliament
b)In Oct 1913 Yuan forced Parliament to elect him