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Lecture

12 09 18 Persia.docx

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Department
History
Course
HIS102Y1
Professor
Carol Chin
Semester
Fall

Description
Persia: Crossroads of Empire Tuesday, September 18 Persia as a model of empires C & C chapter 4, pages 105-107, 117-135 900 BCE - 651 CE I. Intro: Empires, Geography, and History II. Four Persian Empires III. Creating an Empire IV. Governing an Empire V. How Empires Decline VI. Conclusion: Rise and Fall of Empires I. Intro: Empires, Geography, and History -Persia is a European name. "Iran" is closer to the correct name, but Persia is more common when used in history. Interchangeable. -What is Asia? -Eurasia--where is the divide Europe/Asia? *Eurasian continent -East Asia: China, Japan, Korea. Sometimes referred to as Far East -SE Asia: Burma to Indonesia -Central Asia: populated mostly by nomads -South Asia: India, Pakistan, Nepal -SW Asia: Iran, Iraq, Afghanistan... sometimes referred to as Near/Middle East -Early civs of SW Asia -Mesopotamia (3000-1600 BCE) -within Tigris and Euphrates rivers (modern day Iraq) -major cities: Babylon, Nineveh, Ur -Babylon known for "hanging gardens" (roof gardens) -Assyria (900-612 BCE) -military rule --> extract wealth -indirect rule II. Four Persian Empires -Achaemenid (559-530 BCE) -founding Persian empire -Cyrus* created and unified empire (*Greek forms of names) -by alliances or military takeover -let local rulers continue to rule pros: keep loyalty of people, saves on man-power, ruler knows area cons: possibility of rebellion -Darius -extends empire -creates administrative structure -Xerxes -during time of Greek threats -lots of internal conflict (subject peoples) -Seleucid (323-83 BCE) -foreign rule. Persia conquered by Alexander of Macedonia. When he died, empire divided into smaller empires. Persian area called Seleucid empire. -hybrid of cultures (Greek and Persian) *Hellenistic culture -Parthian (247 BCE - 224 CE) -Parthians were nomads from NW Iran -restored "Persian" rule and culture -culture still a hybrid. Can't unmix -Mithridates (a ruler) *interesting, not of particular importance - afraid of being poisoned. Experimented w/ antidotes. Tested on prisoners. When antidote worked, built up own immunity to all known poisons -when finally conquered, gave family poison
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