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12 09 20 Phoenicia & Greece

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Carol Chin

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Phoenicia & Greece: Mediterranean "Empires" September 20 C & C chapter 5 ; Liu docs. 4, 5 *my notes, not mentioned in lecture. Additional information c. 800 BCE - 146 BCE I. Introduction II. Origins and Geography III. Phoenician Commerce and Trade IV. The Military and Greek Society V. Alexander the Great VI. Conclusion I. Introduction How are Phoenicia and Greece different from "typical" empires ? II. Origins and Geography -Phoenicia -- roots ~1600 BCE -travelers. Merchants (timber) -known for fleet & navigation of Mediterranean -area of modern day Lebanon, right on the coast. -Persia was just East of the them -8th century BCE: heavy contact with Greece -Greece -mountainous. Lots of islands -little arable land -hard to transport goods -looked to maritime travel -Contact: Greece adopted Phoenician alphabet - influence of Assyrian empire in Greece City states -isolated clumps of people Phoenicia: colonies around the Mediterranean ; city-states Greece: modeled city-states after Phoenicia -"polis" : Greek for city-state -ruled independently. No ruler for all of Greece -Athens: early origins of democracy -politics: rule selves. No king. Power is shared -no unified power. Had ties with one another, but overall, no centralization III. Phoenician Commerce and Trade -Phoenicia (Punic) -Assyrian ascendancy boosted Phoenician trade networks ~8th century BCE -Phoenicians did some manufacturing of raw goods as well as trading -6th century BCE: colony/cities with infrastructure in Phoenician territory -Tyre was the mother city in "Lebanon" -goods: -timber, ivory, textiles, metals, wine -spread Persian culture into the Mediterranean -colonies: along N African coast, S Spain -allowed Phoenicians to escape from big empires (Persians_ -trade network allowed them to simply up and leave, and move to another city, away from Persian expansion ؞ homeland cities decline as cities further away develop --especially Carthage (modern day Tunisia) -initially a relay point -when Carthage centre of Phoenician world, called Punic -height of Punic influence (3rd century BCE) - spheres of influence extended further inland in Europe and N Africa -Carthage also conquered nearby areas in Africa -emergence of agriculture in Punic society -Assyrian market allowed the Punics to move IV. The Military and Greek Society -Greece also had city-states, colonies, and big trade network. -Also threatened by Persia SPARTA -conquered and enslaved Messenians (helots) -needed constant military strength to maintain internal control -Spartan men focused on military ATHENS
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