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HIS310 Lecture March 25.docx

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Steve Penfold

HIS310 Power Rangers show just made to sell toys; imported from Japan Walkman (Sony): alternative to boom-box Nintendo: entertainment system, video game console • came to America in 1980 and new forms of leisure • biggest selling toy within a decade in 1/3 of American homes • Japan powerful in terms of leisure, toys, entertainment Toyota/Nissan • most surprisingly rise of Japanese cars in 1970s • by 1980 Japan worlds largest producer of cars • core stereotypical American industry • key maker for the North American market • 1963 Japan export 7000 cars to US and by 1980 2.5 million exported • music and cars but foreign movies never make a serious dent in the mainstream market • Japanese anime is exception- Astroboy • 70s and 80s California grassroots emerges based on users/fans begin to exchange anime ◦ Space Battle Ship ◦ users interested in the authenticity of the original and don't want it Americanized ◦ links to distribution channels from Japan and participation is key in this kind of movement ◦ show films in community centres or school gyms or small comic shops ◦ people who watch didn't understand Japanese so user driven rather than capitalist driven ◦ by 90s companies emerge that want to capitalize on this growing interest but also alter products ◦ peak of entrepreneurial trend is Pokemon cards II. Rise of New Economies • General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) • Four Asian Tigers (HK, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan) ◦ period of rapid industrializations ◦ massive overall effect and 30% of world GDP down to 25% by 1980 ◦ declining US economy in post-war years by 1980s ◦ especially in important industries such as auto industry which is paradigm setting industry setting panic in a way not present in other industries • increasing tendency for American companies to export jobs to these emerging economies • by 1966 American companies that operate globally already have 1/3 of their workforce overseas which accelerates over time • coming out of WW2, North America at the height of economic power and confidence • in 1945 North America is 50% of world production • expansionist idea to expand NA culture and free trade culture • US in 40's and 50s to bring down trade barriers ◦ GATT multi-lateral discussion on how to bring down trade barriers in the world ◦ go into 80s which ultimately become WTO • organized labour, more exports more jobs and more to gain in wages • by 70s and 80s other economies challenges the hegemony of US economy • Germany and Japan in 60s then the 70s and 80s 4 Asian Tigers III. Buy American Campaigns • International Ladies Garment Workers Union (ILGWU) ◦ decline of members in union by 1990 ◦ begin to lobby for legislation • United Autoworkers (UAW) • Foreign Trade and Investment Act, 1972 ◦ labor begins to push for more protectionist policies ◦ begin to invest in additional publicity such as union labels that go on products to say they are union made ◦ buy union label and ILGWU begins to put out ads • vast majority in 1960 of clothing made in US • in 1980s 60% made abroad • union see threat especially of Japanese goods • Wal-Mart early adopter of this strategy; sources products from all over the world but in 80s launch a Buy American campaign • Wal-Mart, Bring It Home to the USA • "This Item, formerly imported, is now being purchased by Wal-Mart in the USA and is creating or retraining jobs for Americans!" • only sourced products in USA if they could match the international prices • Robert McKesson: ◦ design bumper stickers and t-shirts to encourage Buy American • Bumper Sticker Economics I. Wal-Mex, 1991 • neo-liberalism of global trade ◦ disourse of the market to desribe society ◦ torn down last vestiages of mexican protectionist ◦ wal mart fit the post 70s economy in mexico ◦ like fast food, wal mart begins to expand globally as domestic saturation occurs • General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) • North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA, 1994) II. North America's Discount Revolution • many industries become McDonalized • Wal-Mart becomes the paradigm and symbol of American capitalism in this period • mid-20th century: post-war develop
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