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Carry Takagaki

Jan 7 – Korea and Imperialism • The Unyō-kan Incident of September 1875 [Japan invaded Korea] • Japanese sailors are fired upon when they seek water & provisions in Korea • Japan wanted apology so they battled and Korea lost • Feb 1876: Treaty of Kanghwa • To make Korea an independent state , not a tributary state of China • 3 ports upon to the Japanese • Extraterritoriality for Japanese citizens • An Emerging imperialist Mentalities • Strategy of Euro-American traders, bankers, industrialists • Maximize personal profits by exploiting sales and overseas markets • Buy cheap raw materials and foodstuffs to send home • State policy • Acquire colonies, protectorates and spheres of influence to augment wealth, power and prestige • 1886: Tokutmi Soho, a journalist and historian accepts Herbert Spencer's view that all advanced industrial societies are peaceful and non-aggressive by nature • 1893: Soho changes his attitude: imperial expansion presents Japan's last chance of the Great Powers, ensure its security survival and bring civilization to other countries in EA • 1894: The Tonghak Rebellion • 1894: it was a religious uprising rallying peasants to improve conditions for Korea's poor and toleration for their religion • King of Korea asks China for assistant • China sends 3000 troops without telling Japan [violating the Tianjin convention] • Sino-Japanese War 1894-1895: August 1, 1894, China and Japan declared war on each other • 1895: Treaty of Shimonoseki • Heavy indemnity 360 million yean and Japan's national budget • China was to recognized Korea as an independent country • China signs a commercial treaty with Japan similar to those China signed with Western powers • The Triple Intervention (1895) • Russia, French and Germans "advise" Japan to return the Laiodong Peninsula [in hopes in building railway in China] • 1895: japan informs the 3 powers that the Laiodong Peninsula would be restored to China • Japan gets an increase of indemnity from China 1.12 million kg of silver • All Japanese troops withdrew from the peninsula by December 1895 • Soho [historian and journalist] believes Japan were not strong enough against the Western and their progress would have to depend on military strength instead • 1898: Russia gets 25 year lease on peninsula and permission to build railway from Harbin to Port Arthur • 1894: Anglo-Japanese Commercial treaty • Ends unequal treaties between Britain and Japan • Ends Britain's extraterritoriality in Japan • 1902: Anglo-Japanese Alliance • Each nation recognizes each other's privileges in china • Britain recognizes Japan's interest in Korea • Agrees to support each other in case of Russian attack • Russo-Japanese War 1904-1905 • 1905: Japan defeats the Russian fleet • Korean-Japanese Convention of 1905 (The protectorate Treaty) • Korea becomes a protectorate of Japan • Japanese troops enforce law and orders in Korea • 1910: Annexation Treaty : Korea becomes a colony of Japan • March First Movement : 1919: demonstrates calling for independence • 1919 - 1931: many rice products from Korea were shipped to Japan • 1911: Japanese made primary language of Korean schools • 1929: School forced to use Japanese language and textbooks • 1938: Korean encouraged to take Japanese names End of Chinese Empire • The boxer rebellion 1898-1900 • Boxers: society of Righteous and Harmonious Fists. Its members practiced weaponless martial arts • Imperialism • 1898: Boxers attacking Christian missions and telegraph lines • 1900: Boxers burned churches and railway stations in Beijing • Resentment toward Christianity: treaties allow missionaries to move in China freely • Christians were seen as social disruptive • Taiping rebellion were blamed on Christianity [Taiping rebellion = against the ruling of th Qing Dynasty in the 19 century] • British and Americans pressures the Qing to put down the uprising • Empress Cixi supports the boxers: permits imperial troops to help the boxers • 1900: Empress Cixi declares war on all foreign powers in China • Boxers besiege Beijing for 56 days • Manchus reform under Empress Cixi • August 20, 1900: Empress Cixi issues a decree accepting responsibility for the Boxer Rebellion • 1901: establishment of a national school system • Civil service examinations to include questions on both Chinese & Western subjects • 1905: abolishment of civil service examination system • Establishment of military academies • The Constitutional Movement, 1905-1911 • 1905: Defeat of Russia by Japan in the Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905) • Sun Yatsen (Sun Zhongshan) (1866-1925) • Promotes a “National Revolution” to bring down the imperial system and introduce a republic • The 1911 Revolution: • October 10, 1911: Wuchang Rising • Army officers mutiny and take control of the city • Units in other provinces follow • November 1911: 2/3 of Chinese provinces secede from the Qing Dynasty • Sun Yat-sen is made provisional president of the new Republic of China • Promulgates a Provisional Constitution • April 1, 1912: Sun Yat-sen relinquishes his duties as provisional president • 1912: Song Jiaoren/Sung Chiao-jen forms the Guomindang (GMD)/Kuomintang (KMD) 國國國 (National People’s Party) • Nationalist Party leader, Song Jiaoren, assassinated by Yuan Shikai • Second Revolution 1913 • Summer 1913: Revolt against Yuan by Nationalists (Guomindang) • Yuan’s military puts down rebellion by September • October 5, 1913: Yuan coerces parliament to elect him president for a 5 year term (takes 3 ballots before he can pass this) • October 10, 1913: provisional government becomes the regular government • October 31, 1913: parliament adopts a cabinet system (rather than a presidential system) to check Yuan’s powers • January 1914: Yuan dissolves parliament; revokes credentials of 358 parliamentarians • 1914: Yuan virtual dictator of China • November 1913: Sun Yatsen leaves China for Japan • Twenty-One demands 1915 • The Japanese offer material assistance to Yuan Shikai in return for greater access to raw materials and other concessions • Yuan Shikai accepts all but the last of the demands on May 19, 1915, partly as a tactic to forestall foreign opposition • Chinese outrage : boycott of Japanese goods • Britain & USA object to the last of the demands • Monarchical Movement • Dr. Frank J. Goodnow (president of John Hopkins University) argues that constitutional monarchy more suitable for China • constitutional monarchy a source of national strength (e.g., Japan & Britain) • November 20, 1915: a specially convened “National People’s Representative Assembly” approves monarchy in China and with a vote of 1,993 in favour (and none opposed) “begs” Yuan to become emperor • December 11, 1915: representatives of Chinese provinces petition Yuan Shikai to become emperor of China • December 12, 1915: Yuan “reluctantly” accedes and decrees that January 1,1916 will be the first year of his reign, Hung-hsien (Glorious Constitution) • Anti-monarch factions • National Protection Army” opposes the monarchical movement • Yunnan (Dec. 1915), Guizhou (January 1916) & Guangxi/Kwangsi (Mach 1916) provinces declare independence from the Republic • Mass protests throughout China • Foreign powers do not lend support to Yuan’s monarchy plans • Yuan abandons his reign of “Glorious Constitution”; declares he will cancel the monarchy • June 16, 1916: Yuan dies Period of Warlords (1916-27) • War World I • August 3, 1914: Germany declares war on France • August 4, 1914: Britain declares war on Germany • Japan announces neutrality, but promises to support Britain if Germany attacks Hong Kong • Japan: domestic resources dwindling; opportunity to secure raw materials • European nations too preoccupied to maintain East Asian imperialist order • Takeover of German holdings , acceptable to Britain, acceptable to a neutral USA • Paris Peace Conference, 1919 • Japan joins the conference as one of the victorious allies • 1919 Versailles Peace Treaty • Japan receives international recognition of Germany’s former claims to Shandong & the Pacific Islands • Chinese public finds out that Beijing had made a secret agreement with Japan giving Shandong to Japan • Organization of the League of Nations • Japan proposes principle of racial equality (i.e., member nations would not discriminate against one another on the basis of race or nationality and would try “as much as possible to grant de jure equality) • No western nation would endorse the proposal • USA: Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 • 1907-1908: Japan forced to accept a “Gentlemen’s Agreement” that Japanese immigration to the USA would be limited to close relatives of Japanese already there • U.S. Immigration Act of 1924 • Secret Deal of 1918 between Beijing and Japan • China agrees to Japan’s control of the former German possessions • China gives Japan rights to build railways in Shandong • Recognition that Japan has a special position in southern Manchuria th • May 4 Movement (1919) • Communism • Society organized without private property (property is in common ownership) • All productive property held communally (i.e., no private ownership of the means of production) • No exploitation of man by man (each individual should work according to their capacity and receive according to their needs) • Perception of Communism in China: • Scientific • Anti-western • Anti-imperialist • Successful • Founders of the Chinese Communist Party (July 1921) Li Dazhao Chen Duxiu • The New Culture Movement th • A movement among Chinese scholars in the early 20 century to re-evaluate traditional Confucian values • Struggle against the old elements of society in order achieve a new culture for China • Conservatism and traditionalism seen as the roots of China’s problems • The First United Front (1922-27) • Sun Yatsen • Lack of unity within his party (KMT) • Lack of Western support for China • Yuan Shikai gets £25 million loan from European banks for his Second Revolution • Britain supplies Yuan Shikai with munitions and blocks Sun Yatsen from landing in Hong Kong • Paris Peace Conference recognizes Japan’s claim to Shantung Peninsula • Now he turned to the Russians, who readily offered help...and of a kind that was clearly needed: political organization. • Period of cooperation between the Nationalist Party (Guomindang/ GMD/KMT) and the Chinese Communist Party • Soviet Union urges CCP to join the Nationalists in a “United Front” in the national revolution • August 1923: Sun Yatsen sends Chiang Kaishek to study first-hand the Soviet military system • 1925: death of Sun Yatsen (1866-1925) • Chiang Kai-shek assumes Leadership of the Nationalist Party • The Northern Expedition (July 1926-June 1928) • Nationalist Party campaign to subdue the warlords in China • Popular support for the Northern Expedition • Chinese bankers & industrialists support a national, but not a social revolution • Chiang Kai-shek breaks with the CCP and initiates suppression of Communism in Shanghai • Foreigners support the Nationalists • “Green Gang” supports the Nationalists • Green Gang: secret society involved with organized crime in Shanghai before 1949 • in the 1920s and 1930s, the Green Gang was exploited by business & the Guomindang to control workers’ strikes and the CCP • Plight of the Peasants • Indifference on the part of the Nationalist Party to the conditions of the countryside • Excessive population (by 1930, 500 million) • Small plots of land to cultivate • Poor yield of crops • Taxation • New Life Movement • Nationalist campaign launched on February 19, 1934 by Chiang Kai-shek • A renewal of Confucian & traditional Chinese values • Mirrors Fascist movements in Europe and Japan • Communism in Japan • 1911: socialist organizations crushed by the government • Japan Communist Party founded in 1922 The Road to War (Ch. 19) • Manchuria • Zhang Zuolin/ Chang Tso-lin ( 國國/ 國國國(1873 - June 4,1928)- warlord of Manchuria since 1911 • Assassination of Chang Tso-lin/Zhang Zuolin (1928) by officers of Japanese Kwantung Army • Kwantung/ Guandong Army (Jpn: kantōgun 國國國) Japaneses army in Manchuria created in 1906 assigned to defend the Guandong Leased Territory • September 18, 1931: a soldier of the Japanese Kwantung army detonates bombs on the South Manchurian Railway • The Kwantung Army places blame on the Manchurian warlord, Zhang Xueliang • The Kwantung Army occupies Mukden and Changchun • Tokyo orders the Kwantung army to refrain from any further hostilities • September 21, 1931: the Kwantung army occupies Jilin • Army generals in Tokyo reluctant to discipline Kwantung army • Japanese mass media accept uncritically the claim that bombing was the work of Chinese troops • Kwantung Army officers plan to convert Manchuria into an independent republic, governed by prominent Chinese (but who would answer to the Kwantung Army) • February 1932: Japanese troops march into Harbin (capital of Heilongjiang Province in Manchuria). • March 1, 1932:Manchuria (Manchukuo) proclaimed an independent state, Republic of Manchuria established • China’s Response • September 20, 1931: Chiang Kai-shek’s Nationalist Government appeals to the League of Nations • October 5, 1931: mass demonstration in Canton • Shanghai: boycott of Japanese goods • November 1931: League of Nations appoints a commission to investigate • March 27, 1933: Japan withdraws from the League of Nations • Japan annuls the international agreements it signed at the Washington and London conferences • Terrorism in Japan • Blood League /Blood Brotherhood • Group of young peasants who take an oath to eliminate public figures they regard as having betrayed their country internationally, or having enriched themselves at the expense of farmers and peasants • May 15th Incident (1932) • Attempted coup by young naval officers • Attacks on the residence of Lord Keeper of the Privy Seal (Makino Nobuaki), headquarters of the Rikken Seiyūkai Party, and the Mitsubishi Bank • Attempt to take several electric power stations out of service • Goal: declaration of martial law • But: Army fails to join the uprising • All participants give themselves up to the police • Participants put on trial where they are able to publicly air their ideas • The Marco Polo Bridge Incident (July 7, 1937) • July 17, 1937: the United Front-- the KMT (Chinese nationalists) & Chinese Communist Party, pledge support against Japanese aggression • Late July, 1937: Japanese move troops to Beijing • Nationalists order evacuation on July 28, 1937 • July 30, 1937, Tianjin falls • New Order in East Asia • (1) permanent stability for East Asia • (2) neighbourly amity and international justice • (3) joint defense against communism • (4) economic cooperation • (5) creation of a new culture • (6) world peace The Second World War in East Asia • Chiang Kai-shek not interested in organizing peasants to resist Japan because he fears that they might turn against him • March 27, 1933: Japan withdraws from the League of Nations • Germany withdraws from the League of Nations in 1933 • Italy withdraws from the League of Nations in 1937 • April 1941: Japan signs neutrality pact with Russia • June 1941: Nazis attack Russia • August 23, 1939 Germany & Russia sign a nonaggression pact (violating the Anti- Comintern Pact of 1936) • October 1941: Army Minister, Hideki Tōjō, appointed Prime Minister • November 1941: • Japanese withdrawal from Indo-China and most of China • Agreement in principle to free trade in Asia • November 26 1941: Washington dismisses the proposal (fear that concessions to Japan would endanger US relations with Britain, Holland, Australia, & China) • Attack on Pearl Harbour: December 7, 1941 • Tactical victory for Japan • But: public opinion in USA (until now favouring isolationism) now unified into supporting a war • December 25, 1941: Hong Kong surrenders • Bombing of Japan • Bombing of Japan starts the second half of 1944 • iron bombs gave way to incendiary bombs • firebombing raids in 1945 to every major city except the old capital of Kyoto • one night in March 1945 in Tokyo led to the death of 100,000 people • August 6, 1945: Atomic Bomb dropped on Hiroshima • August 9, 1945: atomic bomb dropped on Nagasaki • On April 5, 1945 the Soviet Union informed the Japanese Government that “the Soviet Government hereby makes known to the Government of Japan its wish to denounce the pact of April 13, 1941 [i.e., Soviet-Japanese Neutrality Pact of April 13, 1941]" • Reasons for Japan’s defeat • the China conflict • dependence on external sources of energy • Food production; by end of war average caloric intake that was little more than 6% above minimum subsistence level. • the Japanese economy could not compete with that of the US • loss of transport shipping • underestimated the Allies ability to conduct air operations against Japanese • there was almost no planning with the Germans • Red Army (renamed the Eighth Route Army; the 18th Group Army) • Communists have strong sense of mission • mobilized rural population to wage guerrilla warfare • organized the population to supply food, recruits, and sanctuaries for guerrilla troops • Communists stress common effort against the Japanese • ---tolerate private ownership • ---promote agrarian cooperatives to help the peasants • ---these mild and progressive programs win them support in China and abroad • Civil War between Communists & Nationalists (1945-49) • Nationalists • recognized as the legitimate gov of China by the Allies & Russia • had 3 or 4 times as many men as the Communists • more armaments than the Communists • Spring of 1949: Chiang Kai-shek moves Nationalist troops to Taiwan which Japan had surrendered in 1945 • Mao Zedong at Tiananmen square declaring the founding of the People’s Republic of China on October 1, 1949 • Success of the Communist • Communists practiced a Spartan style of life close to the common people • morale remained high in the army and was continuously bolstered by indoctrination and effective propaganda • Communist troops tried in many ways to win support of the masses • Instead of promising reform only after fighting stopped (the KMT rhetoric), the CCP implemented one change after another • CONSTITUTION OF THE PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA (Adopted on December 4, 1982) • Article 2. All power in the People's Republic of China belongs to the people. The organs through which the people exercise state power are the National People's Congress and the local people's congresses at different levels. • Article 57. The National People's Congress of the People's Republic of China is the highest organ of state power. • All citizens of the People's Republic of China who have reached the age of 18 have the right to vote and stand for election, regardless of nationality, race, sex, occupation, family background, religious belief, education, property status, or length of residence, except persons deprived of political rights according to law • Head of State: The President of the People’s Republic of China • elected by the National People’s Congress • receives foreign diplomatic representatives on behalf of the People’s Republic of China • ratifies and abrogates treaties and important agreements reached with foreign states • Marriage Reform Law (1950)“Women hold up half the sky” (Mao Zedong) • Revolutionary young people must take the lead to break with traditional concepts like, “men are superior and women inferior.” • The Hundred Flowers Campaign/ Hundred Flowers Movement ( 國國國國bǎihuā yùndòng), 1956-1957 • The policy of letting a hundred flowers blossom and a hundred schools of thought contend is designed to promote the flourishing of the arts and the progress of science; it is designed to enable a socialist culture to thrive in our land China Since 1945 • Great Leap Forward (1958-60) • Catch up with or surpass British industrial capacity in 15 years • 33% increase in industrial output predicted in one year • Mao accepts responsibility for the failure of the communes and the Great Leap Forward • Period of moderation follows the Great Leap • The Cultural Revolution 1966-1976 • 1959: Mao “requests” not to be the State Chairman; Liu Shaoqi /Liu Shao-ch'i 國國國/ 國國國 replaces Mao as head of state • 1962: Mao instigates the Socialist Education Movement • Officials and intellectuals sent to countryside to learn from the masses • Red Guards • Attack of the “Four Olds”; old customs, old habits, old culture and old thinking/ideology • bookstores, libraries, private homes, churches and other religious buildings vandalized • certain kinds of clothing and literature forbidden • Elites targeted: Party officials, teachers, writers, all intellectuals, those tainted by foreign influence or ‘bourgeois’ • January 1967: Peoples’ Liberation Army intervenes • July 1968: Red Guard disbanded • April 1969: Mao re-elected chairman of the CCP • Sino-American détente • Post WW2: • USA refuses recognition of PRC and opposes its participation in the UN • Cold War • 1970’s: in America: general call for reassessment of the China policy by liberal politicians and academics, and powerful business interests desiring trade with China • CCP leaders realized that the country cannot continue in isolation and it especially needs help in technology • China needs technical help to expand oil production; USA is the world leader in oil technology • 1971: US allow Chinese goods to be exported into the US for the first time since the Korean War. • August 2, 1971: US announces that it will support the UN in trying to seat the PRC • October 25, 1971: UN votes to expel the ROC and gives the seat to PRC • China gets to purchase American airlines, scientific instruments, chemical products, etc. needed for China’s modernization • Exchange of scholars, journalists, athletes, etc. • USA: reduces possibility of war between Russia & China (Russia would be less prone to attack a US-supported China) • USA gets trade from China • 1967: China Since Mao • Mao's designated heir, Hua Guofeng January 1976: chairman of the Chinese Communist Party • Hua Guofeng • Ten Year Plan (1978) major goals to be made in: industry, agriculture, science, military • Hua Guofeng: • The Two Whatevers: • "We will resolutely uphold whatever policy decisions Chairman Mao made, and unswervingly follow whatever instructions Chairman Mao gave". • unpopular with the public who wanted an end to Mao’s policies • 1978: Deng Xiaoping replaces Hua as top official • The Four Modernizations • agriculture • industry • science and technology • defense • The [Party] Centre believes that in realizing the four modernizations in China we must uphold the four basic principles in thought and politics. They are the fundamental premise for realizing the four modernizations. • We must uphold the socialist road • We must uphold the dictatorship of the proletariat • We must uphold the leadership of the Communist Party • We must uphold Marxism-Leninism and Mao Zedong Thought • Responsibility system • farm families given responsibility for farming a given area of land • contracts for land were for 1 year, but extended to 15 years • contracts for land could be cancelled for non-fulfillment of terms • government sets quotas for crops • families grows the required quotas and sells them to the state at a fixed price • families can also grow any other crops and sell them at free market prices • agricultural revenue triples from 1979-1985 • 1982-83: communes are dissolved • The Open Door Policy • Trading Partners: • Japan • Hong Kong • United States • West Germany • The capitalist road can only enrich less than 10% of the Chinese population; it can never reach the 90%. That is why we must adhere to socialism. • The socialist principle of distribution to each according to his work will not create an excessive gap in wealth • Student Unrest • December 1986: student demonstrations break out in 15 major cities, demanding freedom of speech, assembly and press, and democratic elections • May, 1989: Tiananmen Square Demonstrations • Student demands for greater freedom of speech and of the press • End to government corruption • More than 3,000 students stage a hunger strike • Martial Law Declared Japan under Occupation & the Korean War • Far Eastern Commission • 11 countries that were at war with Japan (Australia, Canada, China, France, India, Netherlands, New Zealand, the Philippines, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, the United States) • Burma and Pakistan join in 1949 • Goals: • demilitarize Japan • democratize Japan • Demilitarize: November 30, 1945: Japan’s armed forces disbanded • Japanese stocks of arms and ammunition were traced and destroyed. • All weapons in private hands were seized and any activity which could be interpreted as having militarist overtones, including fencing, was banned. • Military equipment which could be converted to civilian use was turned back to the government • Wants Japan to be democratic but allowed Japan to get whatever they want • New Constitution • Promulgated Nov. 3, 1946, put into effect, May 3, 1947 • Chapter 1: The Emperor • Article 1. The Emperor shall be the symbol of the State and of the unity of the people, deriving his position from the will of the people with whom resides sovereign power. • Article 3. The advice and approval of the Cabinet shall be required for all acts of the Emperor in matters of state, and the Cabinet shall be responsible therefor. • Article 15. The people have the inalienable right to choose their public officials and to dismiss them. • (3) Universal adult suffrage is guaranteed with regard to the election of public officials. • Article 24: marriage shall be based only on the mutual consent of both sexes and it shall be maintained through mutual cooperation with the equal rights of husband and wife. • Chapter ll, Renunciation of War • Article 9. Aspiring sincerely to an international peace based on justice and order, the Japanese people forever renounce war as a sovereign right of the nation and the threat or use of force as a means of settling international disputes • Abolishment of zaibatsu • Perception that head of zaibatsu had conspired with the military to enlarge Japan’s overseas empire • December 1945: “Trade Union Law”/”Labour Union Law” (Rōdō kumiai hō) • ---guarantees workers in the private and public sectors the right to organize, engage in collective bargaining, and participate in strikes • August 1945: almost no factory worker in Japan belonged to a union • Mid-1948: nearly ½ of Japan’s labour force belonged to a union 1948: “the reverse course” • The Cold War • Increasing hostility between the 2 Koreas • Beginning of occupation, SCAP rejects any responsibility for reviving Japan’s economy • Reform of zaibatsu into keiretsu 國國 • Kishi Nobusuke: • Official in industrial development in Manchukuo • Minister of Commerce and Industry from 1941-1944 • Imprisoned as a Class A war criminal • Kaya Okinori (1889-1977): Minister of Finance in the Tōjō cabinet, 1937-38, 1941-44 • Convicted on Counts 1 (overall conspiracy), 27 (waging war against China), 29 (waging war against the United States), 31 waging war against the British Commonwealth), 32 (waging war against the Netherlands). Sentenced to life imprisonment • Paroled in 1955. • Becomes Justice Minister in 1957 • Reparations for SE Asia • April 1946: recommendation by Edwin W. Pauley (1903-1981), United States representative to the Allied Reparations Committee from 1945-1947: • Transfer all Japanese industrial equipment beyond that needed to maintain pre-war living standards in Japan • Japan’s Self-Defence Force • June 25, 1950: North Korea invades South Korea • July 1950, MacArthur orders Prime Minister Yoshida to establish a National Police Reserve of 75,000 (later increased to 200,000) men to fill the gap of Occupation forces sent to Korea • September 1951: San Francisco Peace Treaty • A formal peace treaty between Japan, the US and 48 other countries to replace the instrument of surrender • Both PRC and the Republic of China (Taiwan) want to sign as the sole Chinese government • Neither are invited to the peace conference • N & S Korea not invited • Japan is instructed to reach agreements with these countries on its own • Except as otherwise provided in the present Treaty, the Allied Powers waive all reparations claims of the Allied Powers • Japan will promptly enter into negotiations with Allied Powers so desiring, whose present territories were occupied by Japanese forces and damaged by Japan, with a view to assisting to compensate those countriqes for the cost of repairing the damage done, by making available the services of the Japanese people THE KOREAN WAR (June 1950-October 1953) • Cairo Conference, November 1943 Roosevelt, Churchill and Chiang Kai-shek agree that, “in due course Korea would be free & independent.” • Roosevelt, Churchill and Stalin agree no foreign troops will permanently be stationed in Korea; therefore, Korea’s neutrality will be guaranteed • the 38th parallel should form a temporary dividing line between zones of Russian and American military command • Potsdam Conference in July 1945 Promises independence for Korea after the war • Soviet army marches into the north part of Korea accompanied by a band of expatriate Korean communists • Many Koreans in Manchuria found Marxism and the Russian revolution attractive • --Russians & Koreans anti-Japanese • February 1946: establishment of the Provisional People's Committee for North Korea, a de facto central government, adopting the political structure of the Soviet Union • September 9, 1948: establishment of Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK) • September 8, 1
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