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Lecture 3

Lecture 3-his245

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Department
History
Course
HIS102Y1
Professor
Dr.Carla Hustak
Semester
Fall

Description
-Lecture 3- Female Honour: Relationships Between Marital Status, Sexual Status, and Property -gender as performativity, honour as performed • Honour is closely tied to gender identity, it requires a certain amount of work and performance, and its also subjective, u may also thing of honour tied to emotion and its historically specific -when honour is “stained honour”: marriage, economics, law, 1600-1800 the word honour is used frequently; how a stained honour could affect the women’s doury or in cases of rape women tries to get her rapist to marry her, strict policing, where there is improper gender order in the ome -affects that honour have and how it pervaded within a society 1) to defend honour: gender & sexual status—how honour is tied to gender; gender as a category is an idea or ideology and a set of expectations that one is expected to perform; conceptual ideas within a society 2) everyday life, ‘real’ effects of loss of honour—practical affects that honour had; 3) honour as relational category --upholding honour where it became a behavoir that receprically affected both men and women—a reflection on the males of the house hold as well if the women cheated on her husband etc -historian Elizabeth Foyster’s discussion on honour, ‘cuckold’—she does so in terms of masculinity, honour was primarily a sexual honour, to maintain masculine previlege, honor for men could also involve other things, where as women is stricktly sexual, ie. Men’s work -gendered honour: sexual, business, craft -Merry Wiesner-Hanks: “Along with concepts of feudal obligation, wifely obedience, and Roman law, one additional idea that was essential in shaping women’s legal rights in early modern Europe – the notion of honour.” 1)Social Networks: family and community –intimate negotiations of honour: family, marriage, communal networks • Male v female lifecycle • Marriage, ‘feme coverte’(a woman covered), her identity becomes that of her husband, she is no longer seen as an independent actor, thus she cannot make financial actions on her own, or any public office • Dowries and sexual honour—this is bound by a male member of the household, her value is seen as property i.e. a woman who has sex b4 marriage tarnished her reputation and douries lowered; female sexual honour could disrupt patriarchal household • Risk to patriarchal structures—if a woman had illegitimate child, this could have implications to male household • Regional variations in marriage patterns: northern and western European versus southern and eastern European; family form would take that of a nuclear family; women in W. Europe would earn their own dowries; S. Europe, women married in their teens, there was a different set up when transferring households, moving into her husband household might also mean moving w/ the inlaws where motherinlaw compete for authority within household • Transfer in household, from father to husband • Sexual honour as generational o Early modern Venice—Avogadori hears women’s petitions to marry patricians o 1589 law regulating marrying patricians o “la vita honesta” a criterion o Historian Alexander Gowan, court documents, case of Rosana (mother of Regina Contrarini), led :a retiring life and was a good Gentlewoman who never allowed herself to be seen on the balcony” o Women who were seen in public places were thought to be promiscuous o Women are shapparoned by their male relatives to protect the reputation of the family o The question of male immorality doesn’t come up Venetian Cases • 1646 Veneranda Tasca Di Gerolamo, Francesco, da Mosto, her family purchased a putrician status; her sexual honour is disputed • Case of Annetta, daughter of Camilla Colonna • The question of rape was seen as property violation; the rape victim is forced to compelle the rapist to marry her • Venetian is given a choice to go to prison or marry her and the rapest married her • Venetian mercantile economy & borders • Venesse was an important cross boarder exchange location • Ortega—muslim women whos fam thought she disgraced them, but she went to the authority for protection-she goes to the Venessian majestry, she uses her status as converting to Christianity, what ultimately happens—she goes into the convent to repent a promiscuous ife—this highlights how women tried to work through religion, law and familier order, her efforts to claim protection shows how certain women tries to use creative strategies to get autonomy • She tries to seek legitimacy to receive estate of de Mosto; when she had the boys it was b4 she married him even though they were his kids, so they were considered illegitimate • Women were expected to internalized the shame of sexual hono0ur • Upper class women—men were the protectors of their honour • Stereotype of the : even in widowhood chastety had to be emulated • Historian Stephen Ortega, Muslim women • 1642 Case of Lucia England Situation • 1753 Hardwicke’s Marriage Act • Announcing of the banns • Scotland and clandestine marriages th th • Rate of illegitimacy upon marriage: approx 1/5 to 1/3 of brides in 16 and 17 c., close to ½ in the 18 c. • Concern of male property—young men taken advantage of • The act—marriage have to be announced • Cross boarder strategy Male Sexual Honour • Roman law: Patria Potestas • England: common Law traditions o Male sexual honour policed in communities o ‘cuckoldry’, charivaris, ‘riding the stang’ o John Dryden 1671 play Marriage a la mode o Defamation cases, example of Robert of Tiverton in 1610 • Men shamed by their community that they cant control their women • Richard Ames “the folly of love or an essay upon satyr against woman” 1691 2)Law Codes --how sexual honour is implicated in political orders—Laws: Marriage Contracts and Breach of Promise Suits • At this time they wanted to systemize the laws and make them uniform, often that involved looking at various roman codes • In the middle ages wat was essential for women was having a male protector and act as her representitive • This idea of guardianship comes to looking at women’s nature as inherently weak and dependent • Laws as prescriptive sources—ideals, they tell ppl how to act; strategies that were around to get around the laws • Justinian Code, Twelve Tables—important codes of organizing laws; Roman laws spreads to France; laws are cyclical, there are interruptions, Nepoleonic laws and the French Revolution revives Roman law • Regional Variation in system of laws • England: common law, church courts hear defamation suits, equity courts on
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