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Lecture 8

Lecture 8-his245

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University of Toronto St. George
Dr.Carla Hustak

HIS245Y – Lecture 8 Women on Trial? Disorderly Conduct, the Reformations, and Communal Control in the Early Modern Witchcraze -witch-hunting as woman-hunting? -100,000-200,000 tried, 40,000-50,000 executed, 80% women -Robin Briggs, Lyndal Roper, Alison Rowlands -witch-hunts more broadly in the context of the construction and practice of gender roles -regional variations: 90% women in some places, other areas majority tried are men -maleficia vs. benevolent magic: witch as bearing ill-will, harm, demonic power -vulnerability of women to witchcraft allegations given structure of gender relations -significance of looking at the witch trials this way -‘truths’ of women’s bodies, village dynamics -age, class, marital status variables Argument’s Framework: 1)The Narrative/Mythology of the Witch: witch’s body, witch’s social activities 2) Social and Political Conditions: Reformation Climate for Beliefs in the Devi 3) Interpersonal Relations: village-level, historical micro-studies I. Malleus Maleficarum (The Hammer of the Witches) 1486: Narrating the Witch -late Middle Ages, elite texts on demonology -Heinrich Kramer and Jacob Sprenger -inversion of order and sexuality: anti-fertility rites, perverse maternity -succubus versus incubus -the witch’s mark and interrogations -Nicholas Jacquier’s Flagellum Haereticorum Fascinariorum (1450s) -Ulricus Molitor’s De Lamiis (1489) -Heinrich Kramer: -German Inquisitor, Pope Sixtus IV, Bishop of Augsburg, 1482 -crusade against witches, reinforcement of sacrament of marriage and procreation -popularity of Malleus Maleficarum, usage or relevance in the witch trials -weather conditions, Food and/or crops, modes of travel -internationalism, the 5 column, sabbats -sabbats & witch trials: Sweden 1668-76, Spanish & French Navarre 1609-1611, Lorraine cases -Pierre de Lancre, “to dance indecently, to banquet filthily, to couple diabolically, to sodomize execrably, to blaspheme scandalously, to pursue brutally every horrible, dirty unnatural desire, to hold as precious toads, vipers, lizards and all sorts of poisons; to love a vile-smelly goat, to caress him lovingly, to press against and copulate with him horribly and shamelessly.” -Jean Bodin Demonomanie des Sorciers (1580) -English case: Lancashire witches 1634, accuser: 10 year old Edmund Robinson -reference to witch’s feast in Mocking-Tower at Pendle Forest Profiling the Witch: -postmenopausal women, reputations, heredit
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