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Lecture 3

HIS311 Lecture 3 - Bothwell

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University of Toronto St. George
Robert Bothwell

Lecture 3: 09/21/10 Population circa 1700: France – 21 million England/Scotland/Ireland – 7 million Russia – 7 million -In 1600, there are no permanent European settlers in the Americas, north of Florida -In part, this is because England and France were both preoccupied with religious ferment – the normal condition of Europe is divided (hostility transcends national borders) -Europeans are very agitated by the idea of “salvation”: this is why France and England were backwards in the pursuit for dominance in the Americas -In the 1600s, the populations of France, Russia, England, and Spain were similar, however by the 1700s, there is a huge change. France becomes (by far) the largest country in Europe. - Thus, we would expect France to be a huge economic and political power; however, France was still preoccupied with religious wars and needed to organize itself -The king of England was Catholic, then converted in Protestantism – in the 1590s, the French state becomes more organized until the 16 century -By the 1700s, the French army grew to 300 000 (the French have a great military power) – the economy must be at a size to support the population; it was, however, location-wise, France was not located perfectly (in terms of economics) and its neighbors had better organized economies -Britain is the largest of the 3 kingdoms (Scotland and Ireland being the other two), however it was far behind France in terms of military might and population size -However, unlike France, England developed a system called “representative government”: the monarchy shared power with a parliament until the 1640s when the central government became much stronger due to inner conflict; a strong monarchy was reestablished -Thus, the army of England was much stronger than the disparity in population with France would make it appear; also, France is not as well organized as England (the English financial system is stronger) Population in North America: Acadia – 1500 New France – 12 000 British colonies – 200 000 -At the beginning of the 17 thcentury, the geography of North America is well understood -Henry Hudson goes into the Hudson harbor to find the Hudson River - in 1610, he discovered Hudson Bay (when he found it, he thought he found the road to China). He traveled fairly deep into the bay when he realized it was not. -Hudson Bay did not tempt Champlain th -Champlain was a follower of Henry the 4 ; he was a navigator and a very good writer, allowing him to petition to people to support his cause -He is sent by Henry the 4 to explore and colonize America. His 1 settlement fails outright, his 2ndsettlement (Port Royal) is more successful due to a more hospitable rd climate (he writes it up in such a way as to petition a larger colony); his 3 settlement (Quebec City) is the most successful of all. It is found in 1608 and is the oldest, continuously settled town in North America (comparable to Virginia and Plemeth. -Quebec City is located advantageously (although cold); it is located near a natural travel artery, the Hudson River. In the 17 century, the world was much colder and the river was frozen for more months than it is today. -One characteristic of early settlements is “isolation” -Champlain is able to make decisions with his leadership skills to retain colonists in North America – ho
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