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Lecture 4

HIS311 Lecture 4 - Bothwell

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Robert Bothwell

Lecture 4: 9/23/10 - Two French colonies: Nth France + Acadia; they have 12-13 000 inhabitants at the beginning of the 18 century -In 1700, the British colonies included: New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, New York, Boston, Philadelphia, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Maryland, Virginia and North Carolina • Boston, New York and Philadelphia are the largest (although, while large, they are still dependent colonies) -The potential for growth is there in the English colonies -There is a great distance between New France and the English colonies (distance and the physical characteristics of the land between the French and British colonies – i.e., no navigable rivers that run north-south, thick forests, rough terrain – inhibit communication and trade, however also act as a wall and defense for New France) -The British have no resources to break through the natural barrier -Geography favors the French (Hudson River) • The Hudson River freezes and is inaccessible during the winter months (water is the main transportation method in the absence of roads) -For Acadia, this natural barrier does not exist – Acadia is close to New England and sits on top of desirable land (on the Atlantic fishery, a tremendous source of income – the fishery is a constant /desirable occupation) -At this time, there were the Religious Wars of Europe (between Protestants and Catholics) -Religion is a defining characteristic of nationality, but not the only factor -Louis XIV wishes to bring England back to the Catholic faith – James II, the king of England, believes in this as well (however, James is politically and strategically inept). -In 1688, William of Orange stages a rebellion and taking the throne of England from James II -James (a relative of Louis?) goes to France to talk to Louis XIV – Louis recognizes James’ son as the true successor to the throne and the King Williams War begins • The war consists of France on one side and England with a European coalition on the other side -The war is really about French dominance in Europe (it is the largest, most populous country with the strongest navy) -In 1960, the war is on equal terms – Louis does not lose or win -The war is waged in North America as well (Nova Scotia, Quebec City) however the French are able to resist British attacks • The war is also staged in the interior and involves the native nations (who are non-passive) -The natives went where their interests were greatest; the Iroquois were British allies while the interior nations favored the French -The Frontier War of 1960 involves attacks on the New England frontier -The Treaty of (*****) in 1967 effectively ends the war – a stalemate -The War of the Spanish Succession was over the question of who should be the king of Spain – the Hapsburgs (the dying Spanish king’s Austrian cousins) or the family of the King of France -Louis XIV wants his grandson to be th
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