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Lecture 7

HIS311 Lecture 7 - Bothwell

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Robert Bothwell

Lecture 7: 10/4/10 War involving France, Spain, Poland, Britain and the United States -Nova Scotia has same structures of government as the colonies to the south • It is settled by immigrants from the colonies – and thus there is a strong cultural affinity with people from Boston (etc.) -Why Nova Scotia didn’t join the war: 1. Strong British garrison in Halifax 2. An Island 3. The rebels were suppressed -Quebec: the French population was rapidly increasing (a population of 75 000) – of this population, roughly 2000 spoke English. The English speakers were from the American colonies and from Britain -The people of Quebec were mostly (mercantile) merchants who were not interested in fighting in the war because if New York was taken out of the trade, Montreal would prosper (Montreal’s opportunity was New York’s loss) -Carleton, a British colonel, wanted to appease the French Canadians. The Quebec Act was established to give status to the French language and Catholic toleration • Carleton hoped the population would rally to support him – and they all did. • French seigneurs rallied too because they also benefited – they would be the ones to govern Quebec -The majority however was not as strongly attached to Catholicism as the British had hoped – they would not go to war with Britain because they had been granted religious tolerance -Carleton defeated the Americans – had the Americans won, the French population would have become American citizens (Massachusetts) -Loyalists flee to Quebec and Nova Scotia -The British have allies: of the first nations, 2/6 supports the Americans – Iroquois strength is on the British side • The natives are a minority and the Americans drive them out to the gates of the post at Fort Niagara where they become refugees -The southern colonies in America support African slavery (the economy depends on the institution of slavery) -When the British were at war, they appealed to the slaves (south of Maryland) – if the slaves reached British territory they would be free (an incentive to fight for the British cause) ***NOTE: the Treaty of Versailles and the Treaty of Paris (1783) are interchangeable terms -The treaty is negotiated to end the war; if the politicians in Britain really wanted, the king had to give way…which he did (his power was not absolute) -The British were trying to create a condition in which in the future, the United States would be friendly (appeasement) • By and large, when the Americans pressed to a particular outcome, the British gave way -The boundary situation was favorable to the Americans; Britain was able to keep Quebec, Nova Scotia, Ontario (access to the Great Lakes) -Ben Franklin pressed for the boundary promising eternal friendship in return -The Treaty of 1783 divides native land -Loyalists had been viciously treated during the American Revolution (their land was taken) – they asked for their lost property but the Americans would not concede -Britain did not occupy much rebel territory but had to give back all the land and slaves -The evacuation of British troops from New York by the end of November -At the meetings in New York, George Washington was the American official and Carleton was the British official -Washington famously asked for the slaves back; Carleton responded that he had sent them away – these people would never be slaves again
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