Lecture 8: 10/07/10
In 1802, peace was made between the French Republic and the United Kingdom in
the French Revolutionary Wars by the Treaty of Amiens.
Napoleon Bonaparte, a French general had lead a coup d’état becoming the ruler of
During the wars, the French Republic destroyed all of its European neighbors –
Britain no longer desired to war.
In 1798, Bonaparte persuaded the French government to take Egypt. The French
were defeated by the British. Bonaparte then led a coup d’état in 1799, effectively
becoming the emperor of France; an absolute ruler.
-France has colonies apart from Canada, in the West Indies, East Asia, etc. France
had lost Canada during the wars, but to no distress. Canada had not been as
profitable as some of France’s other colonies (which were based on slavery)
-San Domingue: a French colony with a large slave population. How is this
compatible with the French Revolution (the idea that people are born free and have
the natural right to overthrow rulers who do not protect their rights and liberties)? It
was not. The people of San Domingue eventually overthrew the French rule and
Haiti was created.
-The principles of the French Revolution were: liberty, equality and fraternity
-The French Republic could not do much about Haiti, so Napoleon has his brother-in-
law try to re-conquer Haiti in 1802-18****. The French are defeated in Haiti by locals
and yellow fever.
Spain gives Louisiana back to France – this would form an integral part of the
revived French Empire
-Louisiana in the whole of Canada from Mississippi to the Rockies.
-In 1803, Napoleon provokes Britain into declaring war again, however in 1803, the
Royal Navy is predominant and Napoleon would not be able to defeat the British at
-Jefferson, the 3 President of the United States, was deeply anti-British
-Seeing an opportunity, Napoleon sells Louisiana to Jefferson. Before this purchase,
the United States is limited from Atlanta to the Mississippi. These actions have a
huge impact on the balance of power in North America.
-A great feature of Canadian life is that they are smaller and poorer than the US.
Buy purchasing Louisiana, the US becomes much greater. This action is amazingly
-France defeats British allies on land but loses the battle on the ocean. In Montreal,
honor is held for Lord Nelson who is killed in battle.
-Canadians are doing well outside of the war: Napoleon cuts off Britain from natural
supplies in Europe. Britain must find a new trading partner and source of supplies.
-Canada becomes an important strategic power in the war effort. The Canadian
colonies profit greatly from the war (mercantilism).
-There is also a rapid increase in population in the colonies: Lowe Canada has a
population of 200 000 in 1810. Upper Canada grows in population as well but
through immigration from the US.
-American settlers would naturally move to Ontario because the government was
giving all immigrants free land (good agricultural land)
-From 1770-1790, there was not much change. There remains a huge cultural, legal
and government similarity between the two countries – so Americans had few qualms with moving north to Canada. Indeed, many Amer