Borden Lloyd George Res IX Imperial War Conference
Meighen Bonar Law Paris Peace Conference
King Baldwin Anglo-Japanese Alliance
Meighen MacDonald (Imperial Conference of 1921)
King BennettBaldwin Locarno
MacDonald Balfour Report
-During WWI, Canada became a huge exporter of ammunition and pro
-During WWI, the idea that Canada was a developing country was reversed –
Canada and Britain had to come to terms with what existed in Canada: an industrial
power with large capital reserves. The financial capacity of the government grows
as well. Canada in WWI acquires an income tax. In 1918-1919, Canada also had a
huge debt. The shadow of the debt hangs over the government in the 1920s.
-Borden’s contribution to the war effort was crucial (as was the contribution from
Australia, India and South Africa). The Imperial War Conference is a talk-shop, but
not an executive body.
-General Smuts at the Imperial War Conference passes Resolution 9 which
recognizes equthity of self-governing parts of the empire – it is the payoff.
-November 11 1918, an armistice is signed (ceasefire) and the fighting stops. IN
order to get the ceasefire, the Germans had to agree to a number of ally demands
which made it impossible for Germany to continue the war. In the aftermath, the
Canadian army marches into Germany and occupies part of the Rhineland. Germany
was convulsed by revolution – the Germany army was dissolving. Germany was in
no shape to resists. The ally powers gathered in Paris in 1919. Canada was at the
Paris Peace Conference; Borden was there to extract praise of Canada’s importance.
Borden felt Canada deserved recognition as great as Belgium – maybe more.
-The greater powers got 5; the minor powers got 3; the other powers got 2.
-Canada received 2. The Conference was hosted by France, George Clemenceau.
Clemenceau was aware that Germany had suffered greatly. If Clemenceau had been
inclined to revenge prior to 1914, he really wanted regime after 1918.
-Clemenceau, Lloyd George, etc., Borden never got a chance to speak at the
-Wilson, Clemenceau, and Lloyd George – as far as Canada is concerned, Canada
joins the Peace Conference with no specific demands. Canadian aims are: avoidance
of quarrels among the powers, the end of war, and a stable peace.
-Canada serves in a useful way because Canadians are available for committees
(where the real work is done).
-Some of the Canadian delegates, Sifton for example, turns out to be an excellent
negotiator in the technical committees
-We wanted recognition
-Wilson wants to prevent war from ever happening again. How can it be prevented?
Wilson was a political scientist and comes up with the League of Nations. 1914
could have been prevented in a conference had been held. The League of Nations is
a mechanism to
-Wilson was not wrong in terms of psychology – he wants the League to have a
force of law. International law is becoming an important thing. An International
Court is needed. International law comes into play to manage how states act. The
League will enforce international law. -Wilson The Covenant – people subscribe to the Covenant –
-All countries that ratify and sign the League are subject to the same international
regulations. This is very unlike America – America tends to hold itself in a
hegemonic light and often pursue a policy of isolationism. Th