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Lecture 19

HIS311 Lecture 19 - Bothwell

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Robert Bothwell

Lecture 19: 11/19/10 League of Nations Mackenzie King Council R.B. Bennett Assembly ------------ St. Joseph Pope Under Secretary of state Manchuria ( Secretary-general Ethiopia Permanent delegations O.D. Skelton 1924-21 ------------ Article X *War of 1812 on the term test -Covenant of the League is the treaty of Versailles. Every state that signs the Treaty becomes a member of the League of Nations -Canada becomes a member of the League in its own right -Britain tried to caucus the members of the Dominion to work together toward one position -Canada did not have to take the same stance as Britain – in more than once occasion Canada takes a position -The Assembly of the League meets every September in Geneva -There is an organ of the League that can meet every time – the Council: the permanent members (the powers of 1919 – US, UK, Italy, France and Japan). Italy drops out and Germany joins the Council replacing Italy -How many members of the League were there? When U.S. dropped out, Canada is the only country from the Americas – Mexico joins however in 1931 [membership expanded but never reached universal status – there were always important countries that were not members of the League]. -Because the US was not in the League, the burden increased for everyone else. The League depended on the great powers of Europe and specifically Great Britain and France st -The principle officer of the League was called the secretary general. For the 1 15 years it was an English diplomat; for the last 3 years it was a French diplomat. [Just 2 – both come from the two most important functional members of the League] -The secretary general had influence – in pushing the League in particular directions (this is important in the late 1930s) -The League Covenant – keystone article: Article X – commits all state members of the League to come to the assistance of any state member that is attacked [a form of alliance] *There are exceptions to this: Woodrow Wilson says the League is the “great court of public opinion” -Wilson has the idea that contending parties that wanted to war would come to the League of Nations to argue their case before the world court of public opinion (if you ventilate on a case and have it arbitrated by the League of Nations, you lessen the possibility of war/battle/aggression) *Sometimes this worked. There’s a dispute between Greece and Italy in the early 1920s & a dispute between *** & *** -It is demonstrable that under certain situations, the countries -In a lot of cases, the League did not work -How did Canada deal with this? -The initial problem with External Affairs was that the under secretary was very old -Eventually Mackenzie King has Sir Joseph Pope retired – he elects O.D. Skelton -Pope had been a good Under Secretary but he focused on managing international affairs (filing cabinet). The following Under Secretary suggested that Canada have an international policy -O.D. Skelton is a political economist, a prolific writer, had a real doctorate, dead of arts at Queen’s University, an academic – front rank, his writing can still be read today. -A strong liberal, following of Sir Wilfred Laurier. Like Mackenzie King, he derived a number of practices from Sir Wilfred Laurier, for example, English-French conflict in Canada. In addition to being a philosophical liberal, he believed in Canada was to survive, Canada had to avoid the kind of confrontation between French and English Canadians of (***) -The economist Skelton saw the WWI economy had been very badly managed: if Canada had not come apart on language lines, it may have come apart on class lines. The industrial history of Canada (1819) might persuade us that this is the case. This is an example of a domestic case managing foreign affairs: foreign affairs must be managed in a way to protect Canada -The idea that Skelton was an Anglophobe is exaggerated – he was in fact an admirer of the British government. Another argument that Skelton had an attachment to the US is true to a point. Many at the time saw Canada as a North American nation. He argued like many others that the experience of colonization and effective geographic isolation had affected Canadians as it had affected Americans. He was pro
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