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Lecture 5

HIS349 Lecture 5.docx

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University of Toronto St. George
Sarah Amato

Lecture 5 Oct 11 Keywords -civilizing mission -settler colonies -responsible government -East India company -Indian mutiny/Sepoy Rebellion (1857-1858) -1807 Abolition of Slave Trade -1833 Slavery abolished in British Empire -Morant Bay Rebellion 1865 -Paul Bogle -Governor Edward John Eyre -Crown colony -Scramble for Africa -Cecil Rhodes -South African/Boer War 1899-1902 -Boers/Afrikaners -problem of physical degeneration Empire Building, 19th Century -19th century Britons witnessed huge expansion over 100 years -by end of 19th century, Britain was the world's leading imperial power (Imperial Federation Map 1886) -Britain portrayed as centre of the world Four motives for expansion of the 19th century: -profit and money making; whole point was to ensure a positive balance of trade in Britain's favour, point was for Britain to extract goods/raw materials from its imperial holdings and for its empire to provide a captive market for British exports; major rational through 19th century -second major motive; to protect existing imperial holdings, India in particular; crown jewel of British empire -third, expansion of rival powers; 1860s onwards, clear that other European powers are gaining industrial supremacy i.e. Germany; Britain engaged in imperial rivalry to maintain its economic dominance; Belgians, French, Dutch, Germans; scramble for Africa (late 19th c) -fourth, civilizing mission; 19th century in particular becomes a moral justification for empire; moral justification goes along lines that its the duty of Britain (and Europeans) to bring enlightenment to the barbaric nations of the earth; enlightenment in religion, education, laws, customs, technology, industry; large numbers of Britons believed in this civilizing mission as justification -these four motives come together; civilizing motive and profit motive are the same; all four values are part of it and they work in tandem through the 19th century British Forms of Imperial Rule -Settler colonies - colonies to which Britain exported its population; settlement in these places was voluntary for the most part, except Australia; SA, Canada, Australia, New Zealand; Australia is a penal colony, by 1867 - 160,000 convicts had been exported from Britain to Australia, most likely forcibly; hope that colony tending the land would convert the convicts into responsible citizens; something cleansing about the process of colonization -all settler colonies are marked in initial years by forms of cooperation between settlers and indigenous peoples, necessary for settlers view for their survival; need indigenous knowledge, need trade and cooperation -as settler population grows, indigenous populations are subjected to increasing degradations -responsible government becomes the method of governing in these colonies; occurs only in colonies of white settlement; responsible government is a status granted by London; these places are granted power over their own domestic issue through elected assemblies modelled from the house of commons in London -British parliament maintains control over assemblies in matters of: taxation, trade and foreign policy-system of government is hugely advantageous for Britain; white settler colonies basically govern themselves; responsibility/cost of government by Britain is minimal; white settler colonies paid for their own administration to a large extent -distinguished white settler colonies from the rest of the British empire; white colonies regarded as Britain's miniature; no question that these colonies will become self governed; strong allegiances to Britain, linkages with trade are so profitable that Britain has no reason to suspect that their ties would be broken in the near future -colonies are distinct because they are regarded as so closely allied to Britain; colonies which share British values India -most important colonial possession in 18th and 19th century, and especially after Britain loses America; becomes psychological centre of British empire -unlike settler population, British population in India is very small; by mid 19th century, the British population is 45,000 compared to indigenous population which is 150 million -until mid 19th century, British interests in India are governed/controlled by the EIC; EIC established by Charter in 1600 by QE1, trading company which enjoys a trading monopoly with Indian princes in terms of goods coming out of India and goods traded between Britain and with Britain's other colonial interests; EIC is independent from the British government to the extent that it can independently negotiate with Indian Mogul princes, and it does so, for the first couple hundred years in which its active in India -EIC officials need to ingratiate themselves with the Mogul princes governing in the various territories in order to get footholds in India -negotiates ways in which to collect taxes in particular, on behalf of Indian princes -enjoys trade monopoly and accrues a vast wealth by the 19th century; increasingly powerful element and contentious element, because there are lots of other British companies which would like to participate in trade coming out of India -by 1813, British government, charter of EIC renegotiated with British government; charter renegotiated and government partially revokes EIC's monopoly on trade, opens possibility of other companies to conduct the trade dominated by the EIC -from 1813 onwards, the EIC becomes an increasingly administrative unit in India; focuses on administration, not just trade -starts to interfere more in l
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