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Lecture 8

HIS349 Lecture 8.docx

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Sarah Amato

Lecture 8 Nov 1 Model Essays on Blackboard -first read article through -second, notice thesis statement, construction of intro paragraph (no cosmic banalities i.e. throughout time) -note transitions between paragraphs, formula of a paragraph - point, proof, summation, transition, transition, point, proof, summation, transition -note ways in which essays use quotations; paraphrase rather than quote otherwise; notice difference between how primary and secondary sources are used, notice how primary sources are used (quotations are important, quotation never stands alone i.e. summarize, introduce) -note conclusion; conclusion has three purposes, reiterate thesis statement, what has the essay accomplished, end with a gift to the reader, something to mull over World War II Keywords -finest hour -people's war -appeasement -Neville Chamberlain -Winston Churchill -Blitzkreig -Battle of Dunkirk (May-June 1940) -standing alone -Battle of Britain (July 10- October 31 1940) -Blitz (Sept 7, 1940 to May 11, 1941) -Total war -female dilutees -rationing -evacuation Discussion of Empire During WWI and II -world wars had tremendous effect on British empires; NZ, SA, Canada important, aiding British army -two constituencies: white settler colonies and huge numbers of soldiers from Indian sub-continent, serving everywhere in the war effort -WWI; moment where possibility of expanding the British Empire occurs, particularly at the expense of the Ottoman Empire -Ottoman Empire has overextended itself, increasingly weak, poor, ambition on the part of British admiralty to gain a foothold into Turkey and empire, leads to a disastrous campaign, architected by Churchill -wars show something of the fragility of Europe; great impact psychologically -famous writings against Colonialism; attention paid to European experience of war, Europe exposed in both wars its barbarity, and understood that Europe is fragile, go to war against each other, Europeans too are barbarous nations just as Colonies were claimed to be -large numbers of colonial subjects serving Britain in the war effort reach boundaries, exercising rights to be in the homeland and to defend it, in their view; in the war and after the war, Britons have to come to realization that they want there to be boundaries between colonies and the homeland; do not regard colonial subjects, particularly those of colour, as similar; they are foreign, different, not welcome in the home country -war exposes all of these ideas WWII -remembered in Britain as something of a proud war; at the end of WWI, period of soul searching and questioning the legacy of WWI, but this did not occur at the end of WWII - celebrated largely as a proud experience -summarized by 2 catch phrases that come out of the war and mythologize their experience in the war: Finest Hour and the People's WarFinest Hour, People's War -the legacy of WWII, heroic myth -if Britain had been excited about the possibility of entering into WWI, this was not the case in WWII -Britain had done everything it could to avoid a major European conflict at the end of 1938 and 1939; seen with Chamberlain's pursual of policies of Appeasement -arrives in September 1938 from Munich; attained peace in our time, peace with honour; greeted with great relief, only person actively declining the policy is Churchill, claiming the policy as total unmitigated defeat -prospect of Nazi war aggression not brought home until the invasion of Poland in September 1939 -September 3, 1939, 3 days after invasion of Poland, Britain and her empire declare war -not much advancement initially, between Germany and Russia; before war started, it was known that WWII would be a different kind of war -WWI characterized with mostly stalemate, trench warfare; known since Hitler took over Czech, knew movement would be characterized by Blitzkreig Blitzkreig -lightning war; tactic used whereby tanks would move quickly across territories to defeat them, movement of tanks supported by bomber planes; fast movement to conquer territory by tanks and bombers -Blitzkreig occurred when Poland fell in 1939, over 6 months period, Belgium, Netherlands, Denmark and France are also defeated by Blitzkreig -in May 3, 1940, Germany invades Belgium and later Holland, Chamberlain resigns; he is forced out, lots of rhetoric in parliament; Chamberlain leaves in disgrace and Churchill is called in by the king to form the next coalition; Churchill had recognized threat Nazis posed since 1930s -coalition that Churchill forms is very much in keeping with conservative coalitions that occurred before the war, composed mainly of conservatives and labourites; Clement Atley, PM after 1845 is one of Churchill's deputies -Churchill becomes PM at the age of 65, recognized right away as a great war leader, and a great orator; flare for inspiring his populace -Finest Hour - origin after fall of Fr
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