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HIS349 Lecture 2.docx

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University of Toronto St. George
Sarah Amato

Lecture 2Sept 20 Industrialism and its Consequences industrial revolution Arnold Toynbee 1882 1760s cotton 1770s iron industrialisma revolution two periods 1760s1830s and 1830s 1860s changes in transport steamships 1820s 30s Railroad boom 1825 18417 1825 Stockton to Darlington railway factories problem employment of women and children laissezfaire Factory Acts 1833 1844 10 Hours Act 1847 Poor Law Amendment Act New Poor Law 1834 UrbanizationcottonopolisManchester living conditions of working class relief charity pauperism workhouse 19th century Britainby 1851 Great Exhibition of Industrygeneral feeling of optimism about British industrial progress exhibition showcased British techniques of manufacture British industrial wares the term industrial revolution itself is one that provokes controversy among historians questiondid such a thing occur term was coined by a political economistsocial reformed Arnold Toynbee in 1882industrial revolutionrapid changes he witnessed between 1780 and 1850 in the manufacturing sector in particular this suggests that by the 1880s there were some thinkers who believed that there was an industrial revolution characterizing a vast change in manufacturing between 1780 and 1850 historians argue what constituted the revolution there were vast changes between 1760 and 1880 but we might divide these changes into two separate eras Era 1 1760s1830s period of vast economic growth changes in the economy growth and expansion increasing profitability but not vast changes in the lives of workers industrialism creating a factory system did not occur in this first period changes in workers lives that led to them working harder and longer hours but not in factories belief that productivity and economies will always grow no economic stagnation no stop to a growing economyideology optimism based on the promise of continual innovation Process of innovation fuelled by huge expansion in the British population between 1760 to 1830the population more than doubles expansion in the potential industrial workforce surplus population in the country can move to the city to work without decreasing the agricultural working population while huge expansion of cities also occurs economy grows in certain sectors and areas principally Southern Scotland and Northern England textile industry and the expansion of cotton cotton is most dynamic industry in this period whole series of innovations for this industry ie steam series of innovations in terms of the development of more sophisticated loomsfewer workers produce more textile more quickly cotton industry is the first to produce anything close to a factory in this periodthese factories are numerous in this period in the North but do not employ huge numbers of workers something more like up to 100 cotton industry has a lot of outsourcing to cottage industries individuals up to ten working in their homes or small workshops working on projects simultaneously with projects from the cotton mills second industry is the iron industry which is essential to the development of industrial Britain1770s and 80s in particular series of innovations which make it possible to remove the impurities from iron orecreate strong iron
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