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Lecture 4

HIS349 Lecture 4.docx

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Sarah Amato

Lecture 4 Oct 4 Party Politics Keywords -Liberalism, John Stuart Mill On Liberty (1859) -Tories -Whigs -Robert Peel PM 1834-35, 1841-6 -Tamworth Manifesto 1835 -Repeal of Corn Laws 1846 -Conservative -Benjamin Disraeli 1804-1881, PM 1868, 1874-80 -Manchester Free Trade Hall Speech April 1872 -Londons Crystal Palace Speech June 1872 -One Nation -1875 Pollution of Rivers Act -1875 Artisan Dwelling Act -1875 Sale of Food and Drugs Act -Royal Titles Act 1876 -Liberal/Liberalism -William Ewart Gladstone 1809-98, PM 1868-74, 1880-85, 1886, 1892-94 -Slogan: Peace, Retrenchment, Reform -Great Ministry 1868-74 Irish Home Rule, Forsters Education Act 1870 -Northcote Trevelyan Reforms 1870s -Midlothian campaigns 1879-1880 Liberalism -father of British Liberalism John Stuart Mill (On Liberty 1859) th -three principles of 19 century Liberalism: locus of all rights must derive from the individual; thinking is that individual is the seat of all reason, basic goal of politics becomes one of enshrining the rights of the individual; different than what had come before, thinking that each individual has all rights aside from position in social hierarchy who is the individual? Individualism is first proponent -second main idea; people as individuals are not different from one another in capacity key idea is capacity; everyone has the capability to exercise the full range of rights but, it is the duty of society to educate and morally uplift degraded individuals so that they can exercise the full rights they are entitled to as individuals; Mill on democracy educated middle class must have two votes to counteract uneducated workers -Liberal is about teaching people to be good Liberals; the capacity must be educated and realized, and this is the role of society -third principle; role of government, separation between economic and political sphere freedom in political and economic sphere must come together; economic sphere must be in as much as possible free from government regulation (ideas from Scottish enlightenment, laissez-faire) idea that economy must be self-regulating; good of everyone will be achieved if it is self-regulating -caveat to this; articulated by Mill liberalism poses a central problem if one is free to exercise rights, what happens if one persons rights infringe another? What are the limits to one persons rights? -Mill; problem is that there must be limits to individual rights otherwise havoc will ensue; rights of individual extend only so far as to not harm others the harm principle state interference only for activities that cause harm -beginning of 19 century, there are no particular parties; MP was elected to house of parliament and he could vote any way according to his conscience; no mechanism to enforce members to vote in party lines -two loose configurations of house of commons at the turn of the 19 century Tories and Whigs -they could not enforce the principles for which they served, but they had certain differences between them Tories-evolved into conservatives under Peel and importantly, under Disraeli dominate parliament in early 19 century; all MPs are aristocrats, this is the configuration of politicians that is interested in preserving as much as possible, the old English institutions i.e. House of Lords, Church of England, and the Monarchy -preserving institutions insofar as it is possible, against any reform of the system continue privilege of property and aristocracy, church and monarchy -Whigs in contrast, increasingly interested even in early 19 century, of thinking about moderate reform and the new society evolving in Britain as a result of industrialism -Whigs become champions of 1832 reform act; envisioned by Whigs as a very limited reform; Whigs are concerned with the threat of economic depression and revolution, interested in instituting reform to maintain aristocratic privilege -after 1832, rights of aristocracy to rule and rights of property will be maintained thereafter -1832 reform act is the beginning of the great reforms of the British political system; important in creating the contours of modern British politics -Tories in 1830s and 40s beginning to think about the correctness of the limited reform -Robert Peel brings Tories toward reform; he is PM twice between 1834-5 and 41-6; Tory leader, British patriot, always put interest of country before classes (aristocracys needs) -1835 Peel makes famous Tamworth Manifesto; cautiously states that he is interested in bringing Tories toward a position of reform; famous pronouncement; The Tory party is ready to approach reform -reform Peel supports is two measures: first, he brings host of MPs called Tories toward support of the limited expansion of the electorate occurring in 1832 reform act second, support for laissez-faire, liberal economics -manifested most strongly in Peels second PM-ship when he repeals the Corn Laws in 1846 -Corn laws enacted 1815, imposed high tariff on the import of grain into Britain; high tax was soon seen as a piece of class legislation which protected interests of aristocratic land owners; seemed by 1830s to many that these laws kept the price of grain produced in Britain and available to the British market artificially high -if the tariff was repealed, then people would have greater access to basic food stuffs -he repeals the laws, seemingly legislated for aristocracy, for the good of the country as he perceives it,
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