HIS365 Industrial Heartland in Boom and Bust November 7 2012
Exam: 3 questions big broad thematic questions. Drawing on course material
lectures, and readings. Thematic like the environment, border. Pick two out of the
three to write. He will post these questions.
The Great Lakes as Heartland
- May 1 1901 pan American exposition opened in buffalo ny. Enormous and
an important event. Exhibitionary complex. Big fairs that would show off the
most progressive parts of human ideas. Express the very highest of human
civilization. A sense of optimism for buffalo.
- Buffalo is important. Arrival of the Pan Am at buffalo illustrates this
optimism and Buffalos increasing importance.
- The design of the fair also reflects progress- key feature the electric tower.
Buildings dedicated to key human endeavors in the arts, technology,
- The purpose of the fair is not all educated. The midway is meant to draw
people for leisure. Entertain as well as enlighten. All of this signals the
optimism of Buffalo. Emerging industrial heartland.
- Migrants are coming in great lake cities that are at their height of their
political authority and cultural.
- In 1920 9 states provided 76% of supplied manufactured goods?
- In Ontario’s value of manufacturing 50% higher than the rest of Canada.
- Steel mills in Chicago produce almost a fifth of all steel in NA.
- Home to many important head quarters- ex. Detroit head office of cars?
The City as Centre
- Two ways this shapes life.
- Neither of these developments are exclusive to the great lakes but they are
coming into their own.
- Dt of major GL cities thrive.
- The emergence of the central business centers in the dt.
- Centralization of important business. Decentralization of residence in dt.
- Focus by these cities.
- Skyscrapers est. in many dt before WWI. Chicago 1880s, 1920s Toronto.
1922-27 in Toronto 7 big skyscrapers are built in Toronto.
- The dept. store grow in the 19 c. it speaks to the health of these cities.
Centers of progressive commerce.
The Poor Man’s Riviera
- City leaders become much more committed to developing parkland. Natural
refuge within the city. Influenced by the cities beautiful movement. Link
between the physical environment and the human body. Focus on the water.
- The rise of grand lakes.
- Waterfront for the everyday person. Ex. Sunnyside beach in Toronto. - After redevelopment Sunnyside is part of the 1912 reimagine the waterfront.
New development in 1922 and includes many opulent developments like the
- Easter parade at Sunnyside beach – importance for women
- Moral consequence of these beaches- gendered ex. Bathing suits. Making
women an object of the male gaze miss Toronto.
- The formality of the Easter parade is matched
- Leisure not structured.
- The end of Sunnyside after WWII. Easter parade moves dt, development of
the Gardiner expressway.
- Race in equality – amusement parks and beaches are a focal point for
Arsenal of Democracy
- GD bad for these cities but the 1940s and post war years continued this
boom. The War enabled this boom in the GL cities to continue in this time
A Brief History of the Border
The Great Exodus
- By 1900 1 mil Canadians lived in the US.
- Leaving for economic opportunities in US.
- Ontario to Michigan dense. 40% of of Michigan’s foreign-born pop are
Canadian born- they were attracted by land and by social connections. By
20 c. they are attracted by industrial jobs.