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University of Toronto St. George
Vasilis Dimitriadis

On Statecraft and Strategy – Lecture Notes September 15, 2008 • The “ICE MAN” – frozen, intact when found in 1991 • Thought to be a warrior; or human sacrifice • Arrow head in his back; shattered nerves; wounds on right hand; left hand was a cross • Blood found on him (blood of 4 other men) • Victim of organized violence • Represent male part of humanity until recently • 40-60% men up until pre-history died at 14-15 years of age violently at the hands of fellow men; Comparatively 2% die violently these days • Sovereign states emerged creating a more peaceful world/ state; this lead to creating police forces who exercise peace and order • Sovereign states accumulated more power as population grew • States purpose to protect National interest; protect law and order; protect people from outside forces (states) • NATIONAL INTERESTS- economic welfare, shelter, survival (protect each individual) diplomatic • Time progressed more threats to national security • Until recently two types of national security threats: 1. LAND 2. SEA + More National security threats recently including: 1. LAND 2. SEA 3. SKY 4. ATOMIC/ NUCLEAR 5. CYBERSPACE (SATELLITES) 6. AIR • War is created to protect national interests and survival • WWII – greatest war, 100 million dead; fought for its commitment to peace • From this it was learnt that states have to: o Limit war in order to survive o Safety in organized numbers o Moderate their conflicts o If necessary go to war together (united with other states to go after the opposing states e.g. Brittan and France VS Germany WWII) o Collective will to fight together • Inter- dependant “today’s nations like mountain climbers climb on a rope; climb together to the summit or fall together in the abliss” said by Gorbachev (explaining war) "Like mountain climbers on one rope, the world's nations can either climb together to the summit or fall together into the abyss." • War – international source of order, agent of change, guardian of order, threat to order. The Legacy of The Thirty Years War and The Peace of Westphalia – Lecture Notes September 17, 2008 • International order (1) kept mutually tolerable bounds (2) system wide resistance • Peace of Westphalia foundation of international order POST WAR CONFERENCES • Munster Osnabruck went on for 4 years • Westphalia starting point for organized systems/ international relations • Habsburg ruled Spain andAustrian empires • Habsburg tried for continental domination • Peace of Westphalia proved defeat over Habsburg’s challenged for continental domination • Germany – fragmented • Balance of Power SECULARISATION OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS • Removal of religion as a source of controversies in sovereign states • Religion almost lead to the destruction of Europe • 1618 – 30 years war in Bohemia (now Check Republic) • 1630s cities in Europe torn apart • Catholic vs. Protestant • King of Sweden (GustavusAdolphus) was a military modernizer and genius • Saw Sweden’s national interest treated/ fear concerningAustria • 1630 GustavusAdolphus arrived at Germany’s shores • Co- existence = international relations • November 16, 1632 Lutzen; GustavusAdolphus crushed main field army (Battle of Lutzen) • Gustavus Adolphus died in battle • Richelieu – Prince of Catholic Church; led France into the 30 years war • 1635 Richelieu interest for French national interest; Drove France to war to protect French national interest • Powers/ states help and protect the other’s national interest; it would be in they best interest to so because if one opposing power attacks one state than the opposing power can do the same to the allies of the defeated state. • May 19, 1643; France destroys Spain in a matter of hours; Spain never recovers • 1648 French/ Swedish empire went into Bohemia • France won 30 years war • December 1642 Richelieu died; victory for France victory for world RAISON D’ETAT (reason of state) French • Autonomous political moral of the interest of the state determines the legitimacy of its politics • France became European Power The Foreign Policy of Louis XIV and the Origins of the Dutch War September 22, 2008 • French power saviour of Europe • French then becomes a threat with French domination • Measure of power (pre-industrial) 1. Population – bigger, richer countries more powerful (eg. France) • Later 17th century France is 3X the population over England or Spain; France 8X Dutch population • Russia was the only threat to France in terms of population; Russia’s only problem was its bad agriculture • 400,000 Louis XIV – France’s military in times of war; France’s military very strong • Louis XIV said in August 1661, “The kings ambassadors must make it known the king is never content with equality, which should have preeminence over all and is in possession of” • 1680 ambassadors of the city-state of Venice said of Louis XIV “this prince is evidently working towards universal monarchy, and is not far from achieving it.” • 1664 Louis XIV is an menace to all of Europe – Prime Minister of Holland • Conceptions of in and around states was leadership of Europe; Louis XIV hierarchy French at the top • Prestige was a form of power according to Louis XIV – “Reputation is often more effective than the most powerful armies” • Reputation needs to be reinforced – July 1672 Louis XIV said, “I’m in a position to instill fear in my enemies cause astonishment and despair to the enemies” • SOCIAL IMPERALISM – divert outward political challenges • Collective Resistance – lead to 1st battle – 1st international body was born • May 1667 French attempted to conquer modern day Belgium and Holland • Southern Netherlands – Spanish control; France attempted to conquer it • 1668 – English, Sweden, Dutch Republic united to protect Southern Netherland from France • Dutch Republic allies to France in 30 Years War • Spanish also wants to rule Southern Netherlands • Louis XIV (Catholic ruler) vs. Dutch Republic • Louvios – “only way to conquer Southern Netherlands to humble Dutch and if possible to destroy it” • Dutch Republic dominate traders • Mercantilism – economic theory argued amount of trade that was will be all the it will ever be • Spain on land destroy Holland at sea Dutch have no right to seize all Louis XIV and the Dutch War September 24, 2008 VON PIANKE • Believed that study of the past – scientific and objective; to do this by studying past documentation • One brand of scientific should prevail over all • Said, “all policy is foreign policy” • Organized international history should be the center of history studies • The great powers “The concept of the European balance of powers developed in order the union of many of states might resist the pretensions of the exhorbant court” • Exhorbant Court – Versailles Louis XIV • “Finally the forces of resistance gathered around Holland and William of Orange” • William of Orange became King of England • 1672 end of July capital city of Netherlands –Amsterdam • Amsterdam – political center of Dutch Republic;Amsterdam under threat from France • De Witt – persuaded the regions ofAmsterdam; driven from office in 1672; was publicly dismembered • 22 year old captain general of Dutch army – William of Orange • 1672 William of Orange appointed Chief executive office (had political and military power) • Dutch flooded their country 1672-73 to separate the French army • Breathing space for William of Orange in order to warn the rest of Europe to resist French army • End 1672 forces from Brandenburg; Catholic Spain and Austria on Dutch Republic side to fight France • State being prepared to fight for the survival of another state • 1673 – profound development – 30August 1673 Dutch RepublicAustria and Spain formed allies with each other to fight France • Spring/ Summer 1678 France power sheer scale became more powerful than Europe • Key battleApril 11 1677 – William the 3rd in Spanish Netherlands insured France’s victory • Louis XIV tried to brake up allies offering concessions with Dutch Republic • Amsterdam aware of the cost of war and other countries benefiting war • Charles II done a bad deal with France • November 1677 allies between Charles II niece (Mary) married Prince William of Orange (most not happy with marriage; later families fight breaks out into civil war) • March 1678 Dutch Republic signing peace treaty with France • Louise breaks up collision • France turn against the Habsburg • Spanish 1678;Austrian Feb. 5 1679 – Signed peace treaty with France PEACE OF NYMEGEN • France win • France acquired Franche Conmte • Colbert backed the war for France • Restored free trade with France and Dutch Republic • William of Orange 4 days after peace of Nymegen signed – attacked France and Dutch army at St. Denis – 14th August 1678 • Debate weather William of Orange may or may not have known about Peace of Nymegen • France wins with breaking up of Dutch Republic and all its allies • Brandenburg Prussia one of the first to rush to aid of Dutch Republic • Fredrick William said of Dutch War “France has become abettor (domestic decider) From the Dutch War to Nine Years War September 29, 2008 • French failed to defeat Dutch Republic • End French compromised peace with Dutch was to get Dutch to break up with allies • France willing to make political and economic concessions • Events following Peace of Nymegen: o Showed strength of France (throw its weight around) France has the power to dictate terms to the rest of Europe • Vauban – great leader of static warfare • Open bounders – German army came in and out • 1684 French Minster of war Lovious said, “Germans must from now on be considered our real enemies” • France bordered defensive frontiers • In East France still insecure • Alsace key boarder of France (legal French territory) by Germany • Twice during the Dutch War • Three key determinant in France’s future o Breisach o Strasbourg o Philipsburg • Lorraine and Colbert organized Chambers de Reunion • French 1680August determine important territory includingAlsace; conclusionAlsace all France in addition Montbeliard determined to be French territories; important because it connected toAlsace in the North • France grabbing a strong physical territories boarders • East France now much stronger • 1681 Spanish delegate, “Spanish reasons are never worth anything compared with French, when France’s reasons are supported with 25, 000 Calvary men” – Described ‘legal robbery’ • Force sometimes openly used • French would also resort to Strasbourg • September 1681 state army violent demand – Louis XIV • 1681 30th – France stormed into Strasbourg; France acquired another land North Western side of Casale • Further development – Louis XIV’s continental strategy • Leopold I • Ottoman Turks • Louis wanted the Turks to attack Leopold • Summer 1683 – empire was in trouble; stirring up trouble in Balkans and Turks; Polish did intervene LUXEMBOURG • Situated territories • Invasion in France May 1940 • 1681 came under serge • Spanish territory • Charles II • Acted 1683 – absolute disaster for Spain; France invaded Spanish Netherlands • Dutch regions would not get involved with France • Spanish had no choice; France captured Luxembourg in June 1684 • 1683-84 – Louis’strongest period of power PEACE OF REGENSBUG (RATISBON) • Spain and France cannot fight France • August 1684 – Habsburgs defeated • July 1686 – League of Augsburg – TEARMS- pledged to uphold and defend all major threats • German states in south, Spain, Leopold and Sweden • Miserable security for Europe • Symbolic that France (Louis XIV) ruled Europe • 1678-9 PEACE OF NYMEGEN • 1684 League of Augsburg • Series of events that brought France to revoke the Edict of Nantes on October 1685 • Edict of Nantes granted Protestant the ability to practice their religion freely • Ended state tolerance • Did so because of reasons of state • Louis XIV fought with Pope; fight was about who would be able to appoint Catholic Bishop; Louis was eventually excommunicated • Failed 200,000 Protestants emigrated to Dutch Republic, England etc. • Within Germany Leopold was a German hero • Catholics act impressed in Germany and all of Europe • 2 issues pushed Louis into fatal error: (1) German allies, Leopold allies and Max Emmanel - September 1688 Max Emmanel Joseph Clement detached territory (2) Max Emmanel led victorious Habsburg lead army into Belgrave • Habsburg victory 1687 • Lost Cologne • September 25, 1688 Louis made a mistake and went into Philipsburg – this backfired; sent Europe ablaze • Formed the stepping stones to international order The Nine Years War, 1688-1697: Part One October 1, 2008 • Seizure of Philipsburg – Desperate act of a ruler; due to Louis XIV actions • Dark cloud on the international horizons • October 29, 1688 – Philipsburg lined up with France boarder (French secured frontier) • PROBLEM – Military strike conquered limited exercise by Louis XIV: 1. Ensure all France’s boarders 2. Relieve Habsburg pressure on Ottoman empire • Other European states saw this as French aggression (this was a long series of open- ended aggression) • Middle October 1688 – German states come together as a show of force against France; lead by Brandenburg (Fredrick III) and Saxony (John George) and Brunswick – Luneburg (ErnstAugust). This formed Magdeburg Concert on October 15 1688 • Tinier German states pledged money to defend all against French aggression • End October advance guard reach Frankford Coblentz • German never acted like this before • Louis XIV miscalculation • November 15 1688 ‘Glorious Revolution’in England • Foundation of Britain’s liberties • Catholic James II (daughter Mary married William III) • Seize Crown for Catholics (William III) • Constitutional Monarchy • Queen Mary and William III of Dutch Republic ruled England • Strong Force • France final retaliation = destroyed Palatinate December 1688 if cities and towns in Palatinate (Germany) than they cannot set up base • Winter 1688-89 – Trier, Worms, Speyer systematically destroyed by French army • Goal achieved by French theoretically • Psychologically/ politically – French act was a disaster – push all of to active resistance • May 12 1689 – propaganda Dutch Republic andAustria Hapsburgs concluded an alliance roll back France boarders established • Brought England into alliance • Spain joined June 1690 • All of Europe against France • Common threat in treaties – (1) Europe used all resources against France (2) Europe make peace united – fight together win together • Austria, Dutch Republic, England, Britain – great power established • None could fight France alone however they could together • France monopoly • Summer 1940 absolute destruction battle for morality • October 1690 captured Belgrave/ conquered • German forces abandon rescued Hapsburg empire from Ottoman • 50 000 c men fighting wrong enemy • Dutch played decisive role • Spanish decline incapable of defending Southern Netherlands; got help from Dutch Republic against France • William Patterson founder of Bank of England said, “nations now find how money commands all things practically the sword and have reason to know that the wars of these times are rather to rage with gold than iron.” • Two key institutions for Britain: 1. National debt – 1693 2. Bank of England – 1694 • These did create national capital market though which government can finance wars by borrowing money from their people • French royal state did this regularly – which less success • Bank of England security because of House of Commons – small to medium land owners it was made up of – not a democracy • Money caste gave guarantee that people would get their money back • House of Commons taxed own wealth at high levels as to insure the double state revenues • Absolute Confidence of money lending Britain ‘pay master’ for Dutch Republic • 1690 French fleet under Tourville threat to invade Britain • Beachy Head battle May 29 1692 – 6 days of battle – Dutch double size • Sea power better than land power The Nine Years War, 1688-1697: Part Two October 6, 2008 • 1690s – French threaten to dominate Europe • Britain’s power through their navel power • Britain monarch not absolute monarchy; this gave Britain an edge over France who’s monarchy was absolute • Hussars – Austria screening for Calvary • Dutch main political head Heinsium; got alone with William III • 1689-90 French apposed by Europe against French National Security • French proved match for the rest of Europe for the Nine Years War; at times France was more than a match • Sudden alliance caught Louis XIV off guard • November 1688 – find another 100 000 French troops to protect French boarders • Every parish in France was to equip one armed man for France army; this was wasteful • Louvois, 1691 died; his job left to his son Barbezieux; height of Nine Years War France still out number their enemies; did not always out gun them • Louvois tried to introduce new military technologies • Louvois introduced the Pike (like a stabbing end) • Socket Bayonet (Pike) • Matchlock musket-shot off more musket balls than France • Battle of Steenkerk (August 3, 1692) won by French • 1701 last matchlock regiment converted to Flintlocks • Development of heavy guns and gun carriages made France powerful • Louvois developed the lightest gun carriages • 1689, 1690, 1691 – Early campaigns of war; French ill prepared • 1692-93 Summer; high point June 1692 France seized Dutch town Namur; followed up by Battle of Steenkerk • 1693 French crushed Spanish Netherlands French on the brink of victory on June 29, 1693 • Slowly recovering allies • Ware and tare on French economy 1693-94 • 1692-93 failed French harvest hit French rural economy; framers less money to pay in taxes – this hit the French army badly • Allies recovery took back Namur • French proved unbeatable/allies prove incomparable • Feeling same in Britain (didn’t see point in continuing war) • 1696 William III and Louis XIV convinced that they need to make peace • William wanted peace in 1696 • Treaty of Turin persuaded William III that peace had to be made with Louis XIV • Treaty of Turin persuaded Victor Amadeus II of Savoy to made peace • French town of Nice, Pinerdlo, Casale fell into power of VictorAmadeus II –August 29, 1696 • Agreement to neutralize Italy on October 7, 1966 during the rest of the Nine Years War • 30 000 soldiers free from Italy to go north to Spanish Netherlands = resulted to force French to make peace • Dutch government and English government had to talk with Louis XIV; talks in May 1697; peace talks in Louis’s home in Ryswick in Southern Netherlands • Dutch and English (Maritime Powers) make peace with France September 20, 1697; Austria and Germany made peace with Louis XIV on September 30, 1697 • FRANCE – Kept Strasbourg,Alsace, gave up Phillipsburg and political power in Lorraine and Breisach • FRANCE GAVE SPAIN – Evacuated Spanish Netherlands, returned Luxemburg, evacuated Catalonia, Barcelona • Small political classes – people complaining about Louis giving away so much land • Charles II had no children – this meant Spanish territories ungoverned – this lead to the Spanish Succession (land including Spanish Netherland, Naples in Malian) • This is because Spanish owned a lot of land • Louis wanted Spanish land • If Hapsburg got it, it would be an imbalance of power in Europe • June 16 1698 Louis said, “Peace he said can only upset by the eventuality of the King of Spain’s death” • Charles II died at 37 when Nine Years War ended • William III and Louis XIV cooperate to ensure peace; best efforts still war broke out/ Spanish Succession described as first World War The Making of the European Balance of Power: The Origins of The War of The Spanish Succession October 8, 2008 • Serious effect made by Louis XIV and William III to make peace and avoid war • War only mechanism of solving and stabilizing international powers • 1697 – years and decades for peace to come (Peace of Exhaustion) War not solving anything • Problems for Spaniards – Control of power/ end of Charles II and the Habsburg empire (Charles II had no children)/ who would inherit Spanish territory?/ Spanish empire was the richest and one of the most powerful • Southern Netherland (Spanish territory) – cockpit of Europe o + Political fate depended on the 3 great powers (France, Dutch Republic, England) o + Who would rule over Spanish Netherlands o + Was a life and death situation for France, Dutch and very important for Britain • Britain on brink of international maritime power • France in a position to overpower Britain if it ruled Spanish Netherlands • Milan targeted byAustrian Habsburgs • Enemies (Louis XIV and William III) came together to avoid war over Spanish lands • The Dauphin of France (Louis XIV’s son) and theArchduke Charles ofAustria inheritance over Netherlands – if inheritance went to either or it would be recipe for war • Louis XIV July 1698 writing to Tallard – making sacrifices for peace in behalf of his son Dauphin • RESULT – First Partition Treaties – signed between Louis and William III on October 11, 1698 o TERMS – Majority of Spain would go to a non-relative of one of the great powers – Joseph Ferdinand of Bavaria • Second Partition Treaty – after the death of Joseph Ferdinand (June 1699; signed on March of the following year) o TERMS – French made even greater cessations; gave over Spanish inheritance to Charles ofAustria – Lorraine (Dutch), and Milan goes to Dauphin o PROBLEM –Austria wanted Milan • August 1699 Leopold said, “What we want is Milan, Naples, and Sisley. The rest can be taken by whoever wants it” • Spanish objections is what stopped the Second Partition Treaty • Cardinal Portocarrero persuades Charles II to make a will leaving grandson of Louis XIV and son of Dauphin, Philip of Anjou, Spanish territory. There were two stipulations: 1. Philip would have to renounce any rights to the thrown of France - because union between France and Spanish would threaten balance of powers in Europe; giving legal grantee 2. If Philip refused then Spain would go to Charles ofAustria o This put Louis XIV in a tight spot o Louis XIV said this was an impossible situation dammed either way – ended up taking the offer o STIPUTALTION - that Philip would have to expect all of Spanish territory or none at all o Charles II wanted continuity of Spain o Missteps were taken by Louis XIV and Philip: • French army in Spanish Netherlands in addition in 1701 the firstAnglo-Dutch ties with Spain were in danger by France o Dutch had been trading with LatinAmerica (Spanish territories) o Threat between France and Spain o Death of James II September 1701 Louis recognized James II of King of England – challenging protestant side of England o September 7 1701 Austria, Dutch, and England signed GrandAlliance at The Haugue The War of the Spanish Succession October 13, 2008 • September 7, 1701 creation of the GrandAlliance at The Haugue • Reservations about going to war • Just and reasonable satisfaction forArchduke Charles –Austria wanted Italy: Milan, Naples, Sicily • Partition of Spanish Empire was the foundation of GrandAlliance • Spring 1702 Louis and Philip V found grounds of compromisation; held off on war • March 19, 1702 – unexpectedly William II died at Hampton Court; gave Louis XIV and Philip hope to avoid war • Anglo-Dutch view William’s death didn’t matter still wanted war; fight for balance of power in Europe – condition of national security, Maritime freedom across the world and independence • 1696 British Parliaments (QueenAnne) recognized as lawful monarch of Britain • John Henry Churchill – first an Earl, then made Duke of Marlborough leader of military (very good) • At the Haugue Churchill found Heinsius; two to collaborate • Dutch powerful partner for Marlborough • May 15, 1702 – Austria and Great Britain, Dutch provinces declared war on France and Spain – 100 000 men fighting and the number would rise • Dutch had to have high taxes to fight in war • English became great power at Spanish Succession o 75 000 men at height of war o Fight war with taxation and not credit • 90 000 men fighting forAustria • +Austria fighting two wars; another with Ottomans • + French proved a match o Quarter of million troops o At sea did not prove a match o At land summer 1704 • Spring 1704 Austrian Hapsburgs on brink from Hungarians • Anglo-Dutch military commander Prince Eugene of Savoy • Blenheim –August 1704 reverse fortune; Blenheim – village deep in South Germany • Marlborough summer 1704 forces would move south • Late summer 1704 Marlborough moved forces back • 13 August 1704 – French lost 10 000 men surrendered • Blenheim – superior tactics overcame numbers • 1706 Marlborough out foxed hi opponents • Prince Eugene beat French on September 17 at Turin • June 1706 allies were in Madrid • “War should be a continuation with other means” said by Clausewitz – meaning political aims should be formed at start of war • July 1708 Battle of Oudenarde • War will go on if Louis doesn’t admit defeat • Louis offers: Louis enters war on allies side • 1709 – France down and out • Spain dismemberment/ extinction • September 11, 1709 battle that sealed faith of nations Malplaquet The Peace of Utrecht and the 18th century Balance of Powers October 15, 2008 • 1789 French Revolution – Long term reproductions • August 1789 Declaration of Rights and Man • September 11, 1709 France was on the line Marlborough and Eugene of Savoy went into French territory • France was on brink of destruction if they didn’t win Battle of Marlphaque; wouldn’t be a great power • 80 000 infantry men France • France fought hard • Marlborough and Dutch infantry • Battle of Marlphaque September 11, 1709 • Won and lost is questionable, however allies won, Marlborough and Eugene of Savoy partnership won • 12 000 French men died • 25 000 allies men died • Dutch Republic were no longer great power • French strategic triumph • French triumph because they survived • Duke of Villars wrote a letter to Louis XIV which said, “If God gave us the grace to loose another similar battle, your Majesty can count on his enemies being destroyed” • Phyrric victory – when a war cost your side to much you had to surrender • Aftermath – Strain in allied relations; Dutch demanded concessions from British • Anglo-Dutch talks were (Townshend) Treaty of Succession and Barrier • (Townshend) British ambassador at The Hauge • Dutch wanted key strongpoint in Southern Netherlands • Boarder towns mortgaged in addition Dutch gets equal economic concessions • Real Problem – for Dutch was that Dutch made deal with British government party With Godolphin • Summer 1710 profound reaction in England to continue with the war • War devouring British resources • French very strong • Landowners and other tax payers didn’t want to pay for war anymore • Spanish Netherlands conquered • Queen Anne sat with Godolphin • Mid August Godolphin fried new person was Harley (Duke of Oxford) • Leopold died/ Charles VI (Archduke ofAustria) King and Holy Roman Empire • Austrian Hapsburgs – European power • Summer 1711 Torcy made a secret deal with another power to protect economy, and territory • Spring 1712 – could wreck whole deal • March 1712 Philip V was about to inherit thrown to France • Dauphin (Louis XIV son) died • 1712 measles French royal family hit should have been a passing epidemic but instead wiped out all but two year old Louis 15th • Summer 1712 Philip V November 1712 renounced France PEACE OF UTRECHT • Fall 1711 Swift (writer) produced propaganda that attached on British allies • Forces other powers to on 29 January 1712 talks for Utrecht onwards • Encouraged peace: sacked Marlborough dismissed January 1712 replaced with yes man. Prevented from taking action against France • 24 July 1712 last military gesture Dutch army met Denain; French crushed Dutch • Dutch “easy meat” were Dutch • British insisted in new treaty with Dutch; Dutch not getting as good a deal or territory; no longer a great power • March/April 1713 first of all treaties peace of Utrecht were signed • Signed between France and the opposing powers: British, Prussia, Dutch, Savoy • Same allies powers made signed with Spain in June/July • OnlyAustria left to sign • Villar far too powerful • 6 March 1714 peace of Rastadt • TERMS: between France and Holy Roman Empire/ firstAustria then Germany as a whole • TERMS: Partition of Spanish Empire. Philip lost Spanish Netherlands went toAustria • Separation of Spanish/ France • Britain did well got to keep Acadia, Newfoundland, St. Kits • Malian, Naples and Southern Netherlands went toAustria • Britain great trading - winner for material gain • Anglo-Spain: treaty July 1713 started: established an exact balance of power best and strongest based of mutual friendship and enduring concord in every respect • System of future of Europe The Practice of The Balance of Power, 1715-1740 October 20, 2008 * Way in which selfish interest in states: becomes enlightened enough, rational enough for states to put into practice principle that their own survival is best guaranteed through collective means and best expression is the “balance of powers” * Balance of powers is the guide to action to practical policy making * Systematic satiability – derives from systematic moderation and studies in statecraft * Britain and France dominate powers. (Anglo-French alliance ushered in new powers) * Britain committed to continental stability * Bolingbroke’s fell from power;August 1714 George I came to the English thrown * Bolingbroke appointed minister that was not a troy/ appointed ‘wigs’ * Fled England; exile to Lorraine (George I) * Townshend/ Stanhope put into practice Bolingbroke’s policy to continental peace * Two areas Southern Netherlands (nowAustrian; cockpit of Europe) and Northern Italy – Britain’s role crucial in sustaining peace * November 1715 last of barrier treaties inAustria and Dutch –AUSTRO-DUTCH BARRIER TREATY * Provided Dutch (military) occupied in Ypres, Menin, Tournai, Namur and others * British forceful in getting Austrians to except * France was contained and confined * Dutch occupied keyAustrian lands * British could police the balance between France andAustria * Italy clearly needed to check Austrian power * Savoy – British says Savoy should expand its territories – this expansion would be at the expense of Naples (Austrian land) * Britain’s national interest – Britain gets commercial interest by keeping peace; it is eclipsing Dutch power * Britain needs a balance of power on the continent because: o It can export its manufactured goods (for trade) o If a continental power threaded to be more powerful than other European powers – this would threaten Britain * French power was recovered in 1730’s * October 10, 1733 France declared war onAustria – French army moved into Northern Italy, Rhine, across the Rhine, and in Lorraine * The war was called THE WAR OF THE POLISH SUCCESSION * February 1733 King of Poland died – KingAugustus * Louis XV wanted different successor for Polish thrown – he wanted Leszczyiski (this was Louis XV’s father in law; Louis XV married to Polish Princess) * French disappointed when Leszczyiski was ignored for the Polish thrown * Fleury in charge of policy of state for France * Fleury launched troops * Fleury limited war of aggression * King of England George II wanted to go to war * No war in Southern Netherlands because it would bring in British + By the end of 1734 – Walpole boasted to Queen Caroline, “Madame, there are 50 000 men slaying in this year in Europe and not one is an English man” MEANING:Achieved goals without going to war * Lorraine had a dependence on France * 1766 Lorraine goes to France * French interest in quite life after the War of the Spanish Succession * Louis XIV died September 1750 * Successor was his 5 year old great grandson Louis XV * Philip Dec Di Orleans would inherit France or so it looked * Dubois approach George I and proposed theAnglo-French alliance * British unsure of this alliance at first * Hanover German territory – threaded by Prussia and Russia * Prussia and Russia growing powers * France promised to protect and stop growth of the powers November 28, 1716 – Britain and France formed alliance. This alliance had two purposes: • Defend respected succession • Pledge of protection of each countries territories o August 1718 quadruple alliance signed by France, Britain,Austria o Britain and France – August 11 1718 at Cape Passaro destroyed The Operate of the Balance of Power: October 22, 2008 The War of theAustrian Succession • First functioning international order by 1720s • Anglo-French partnership responsible for ushering in the international system • Balance of Power depended on the attitude as much as the action • Insiders of the Great Powers were inclined to make peace • Outsiders of Great Powers? • Prussia of Frederick II – exceed to the thrown May 1740 (nearly beaten to death by his father Frederick I twice) • Frederick II too aggressive • 1769, “I quote the balance of powers as a mere name” • December 1740 Frederick violently seized province of Silesia from Hapsburgs of Maria Theresa • At the time women could not have claim to the thrown; Maria Theresa was supposed to have inheritAustria thrown • Pragmatic Sanction agreed that Maria Theresa had right to Holy Roman Empire; agreed her husband would be Emperor Francis of Tuscany • December 1740 surprise attack – Frederick II seized Silesia; Prussia’s population went up 50% • Prussia now a major power within Europe • Frederick admits to being too aggressive; moved with extraordinary caution • Frederick use Silesia – made concessions to Maria Theresa – gives her financial concessions • Influential vote by Prussia for Maria Theresa’s husband to become Holy Roman Emperor • Maria was ruler of all Holy Roman Empire • War was inevitable • Austria outnumbered and outgunned Prussia • “Prussia is not a country who has an army, but an army which has a country” • Prussian territory (three territory) made poor material base • Extraordinary concessions • Frederick the Great wrote, “About way in which his father had insufficient army” • Prussia well trained • Rate of fire 3 times faster than their enemies – Prussia • Frederick the Great “So many new inventions (training) transformed the army into a moving fortress the access to which was formidable and murderous.” • April 1741 MollwitzAustrians assaulted Prussian field army with force • Prussian army broke up; Frederick wanted to run away • Frederick reluctantly signed alliance with France in June 1741 • October 1741 Frederick signedAustrians and Prussians • July 1742 long lasting Treaty of Breslam; peace lasted until 1744 • 1744-45 Second Silesian War • December 25, 1745 – Maria Theresa makes peace with Frederick at Dresden /Austrians accepted Prussia’s conquest of Silesia • Peace – Frederick made limited conquests • System flexible enough to allow Frederick to enter the ranks • Didn’t want to disrupt system/ just enter it • Frederick challenged very existence of international order • Frederick sent shock and revolt through other states • Agitation that Frederick’s actions stirred up trouble • In France Louis XV turned deaf ear • January 1742 France managed to put Charles Albert of Bavaria on the thrown of the Holy Roman Empire (he was French satellite not a hash) • France conquered Bohemia, Prague, Vienna • In winter 1741-42 Maria Theresa proved to be a good leader – gave concessions to Hungary • Hungarian gave 20 000 Hungarians to march in Vienna and save Maria Theresa imperial state • Carteret was convinced that survival of Hapsburg monarchy was a conditional • June 1743 at Dettingen • Lead by British monarchy – surprise victory against France • Pushed France back to The Rhine • Austrian Netherlands under Saxe proved unbeatable • May 1747 at Fontenoy Saxe won key battle to a French takeover inAustrian Netherlands • Balance of powers reasserting itself • War taking its finical toll • British spent 43 million pounds on involvement in the war of theAustrian Succession • 30 million had to be added to the national debt • 1747 Machault warned Louis XV that France could go bankrupt • April 1747 France declared war on the Dutch Republic • 1748 captured main fortress of the Dutch Republic • October 1748 terms of treatyAix-la-chapelle that Europe reestablished power except for Frederick who got Silesia • French evacuated Dutch Republic • War is an instrument of state • Peace ofAix-la-chapelle shows nothing could overthrow the balance of powers The Diplomatic Revolution October 27, 2008 • One constant of international order –Austrian Habsburgs and French conflict • Few months past in 1755 – mid 1776 permanent law of European international order was transformed – French and Austria made their peace • Franco-Austrian relations relatively permanent • Frederick II’s incompetence is what brought on the new alignment of allies • In the beginning Prussia was: fragile power, weak international state and foundation • Prussia’s land was scattered across Europe; also in East Europe/ separated by Poland/ and then Silesia, Brandenburg was the center of Europe monarchy for Prussia • Mark territories of Prussia across the Rhine and Prussian mountains • Territories had nothing in common – differences economy and population/ only same King (Frederick II) • Prussia’s military was strong and powerful because it was heavily taxed – money came from peasants • 150 000 Prussian standing army – gave Prussia power; however they were still vulnerable by its many powerful neighbours • Frederick II said in 1740, “Who would have thought that destiny would have chosen a poet to topple the political system of Europe.” • Frederick started/ instigated Austrian Succession – all he wanted was to seize Silesia • Frederick II was cautious and diplomatic in him actions • Diplomatic Revolution was not brought on by Frederick’s aggression and ambitions but by his insecurities • This threatened international order • First move on the international system: o Anglo-Russian subsidies o Treaty – September 1755 o Since 1746 Austria/Russia formed alliance against Prussia = this required more power in order to make Frederick threatened • Outbreak of fighting in ‘New World’between Britain/ French colonists • Ohio River Valley conflicts – part of the ‘New World’ • May 1756 – Britain formally declared war on France • Britain had to protect Hanover – their Northern Germany property • Hanover was their weakness where French troops could attack • Summer 1765 Britain approached Russia with an alliance • 50 000 troops / Russia would be protected by Britain/ Russia protects Hanover • Duke of Newcastle (British PM) promised to pay 100 000 pounds for upkeep for Russia’s military costs • If they were to go to war – payment goes up to 400 000 pounds – Russia chancellor would get another 10 000 pounds • This alliance never worked because Britain and Russia had different interests • Britain’s interests – hope that this treaty would scare Frederick II – goal was to scare Frederick II • Russia’s interests – to get Britain in the war against Prussia –Austria wanted to partition Prussia lands • Empress Elizabeth • Frederick II aware of Russia’s hostility • Frederick’s relief when British approached Prussia with a deal – subsidy treaty • Pervaded Frederick to accept Britain’s terms CONVENTION OF WESTMINSTER • Convention of Westminster on January 16, 1756 – direct product of producing Prussia as a great power • Prussia rejected traditional protector = France • This lead to the Diplomatic Revolution • TERMS • Prussia joined with British/ Russian to peace in Germany • Britain and Prussia agreed not to attack one another • Trying their best to prevent in attacking France – Prussia not attackingAustria; Britain not attacking France • Germany should be kept neutral area • Prussia should protect Hanover • Austria not passive observer; had its own international agenda • AGENDA– to regain Silesia and punish Prussia and Frederick II for taking it – wanted to tear apart Prussia • 1749 conference Maria Theresa watched over – Kaunitz argued only wayAustria could destroy Prussia is with French help • 1753 Kaunitz appointed chancellor toAustria monarchy • This was some annoyance for Louis XV and Frederick II • Madame de Pompadour – Louis XV’s mistress • Bernis negation with Stanhenberg (Austria) • December 28, 1785 – Austria’s plan to wage war on Prussia Louis XV didn’t want this because: 1. France was going to war with Britain 2. Wanted to keep peace in Europe • Convention of Westminster over • Frederick never told Louis XV Convention was ended – this felt France feeling betrayed – Prussia would never be forgiven by France • End Louis XV admitted thatAustria had other plans – Louis XV would be isolated if they didn’t make a deal withAustria • In the end the did a deal o May 1756 First Treaty of Versailles – 2 conditions: o First conditions – Maria Theresa (neutral) response to Westminster o Louis XV not attackingAustrian Netherlands or any otherAustrian lands – this the neutrality conventions o Second Conditions – formal treaty of alliances both powers promised to defend each other with 24 thousand troops o CONDITIONS –Automatic defenseAustria not committing itself to France in France’s war against Britain o 5 SERCERTARTICLES: 1. Agreed on alliance – would activate in correct war if one of Britain’s allies (Prussia) attacked on of the powers the French came to their defense • Starhemburg wrote, “We shall success sooner than later in our great scheme.” The Seven Years War, 1756-1763: Part One October 29, 2008 • Diplomatic Revolution in the making • Brutal disruption of traditional alliances – brings down the international system • Balance of powers went under and did individual (states) balance of power • Aftermath – May 1, 1756 – First Treaty of Versailles • Maritime powers shaken by the interruption • Anglo-French powers May 1756 – British turned to Dutch allies to pressure France • Stadtholderlands – Supports for the House of Orange – leader William III • Republicans opposed war because Stadtholderlands would have become to powerful • Austrian on the side of France • June 14 1756 Louis XV gave Dutch government the reassurance it needed • Dutch abandoned British alliance` • Anglo-Russian relations • Aftermath of the Treaty of Versailles and the Convention of Westminster = • Considerable political changes in Russian imperial court • Bestozhev wanted to go against Prussia • Empress Elizabeth unhappy about this • 1756 Bestozhev opposed alliance with France; would have one withAustria • Voronstov – he would have alliance with France • Conference at the Imperial court = o Empress Elizabeth asked Russian ministers what the recommended measures for changing international scene and how to bring down Prussia o Congress responded – March 1756 recommences – immediate Russian attack on Prussia before it grows to strong • Russia reached Austria • Kaunitz didn’t take on alliances immediately • Creation Franco-Austrian defense block – heavily supported by Russia • Frederick II reacted to France alliance • Frederick II stage preemptive military strike = epic proportions • Prussia –August 29 1756 – invades Saxony • Russia’s preparing for war against Prussia • Maria Teresa that she wasn’t conspiring • Prussia over ran Saxony • Frederick II failed to calculate his acts of aggression • Frederick’s enemies were persuaded his war was an outlaw • Invasion of Saxony last act in Diplomatic Revolution • January 1757 Russia joined Austrian – French alliance • Feb 1757 Austria/ Russia signed alliance against Prussia • May 1 1757 Second Treaty of Versailles – justAustria and France against Prussia • No direct French Russian alliance • 290 000 troops French to recover Silesia • Frederick II’s incompetence can be seen • France subsidy to Austrian War effort One thing between Prussia and annihilation = that was Frederick II • Frederick II knew Prussia was weak at this point = targeted for annihilation • ‘Reduction of the House of Brandenburg to its primitive condition at very weak second – rate power’said by Kaunitz • Frederick II still went to war • Initial confidence shaken at Battle Kolin June 18 1757Austria won against Prussia • Prussian army ½ size destroyed French army November 5 1757 Battle of Rossbach • December 5 1757 Battle of Leuthen • Prussia disciplined in training; military unity was how Prussian army was so strong • Frederick II “no one reasons everyone excites” • Prussia army – tactical mobility; skill and shift in marching order (very fast and coherent) • Frederick II harsh discipline, training year in year out – what made Prussia’s army great • Frederick II could over come the numbers ofAustria/French army • 8 battles won for Prussia in Seven Years War • “Oblique order of Battle” Frederick II – use troops for in time and confusing enemies • 66 thousand onAustrian troops in Battle of Leuthen • 20 thousand killed captured or wounded forAustria – 6000 for Prussia • Napoleon cattle Frederick’s strategy “masterpiece of movement, maneuver and result” • Britain persuaded that Prussia was not a lost cause • Battles convinced British to pay for war effort • Best troops put ahead approach by Echelon – Prussia strategy • Diagram in package The Seven Years War, 1756-1763: Part Two November 3, 2008 • Fallout of the victories for Frederick II in 1757 was: 1. His survival of the state 2. The survival of his monarchy • Victory at Leuthen; Prussia won against largeAustrian army • This had impressed William Pitt (Prime Minister of England) the Elder • Pitt gave Prussia a massive financial subsidy • April 1758 Britain promised to give 670 000 pounds to Prussia’s war effort • Pitt backed up financial support with military support to Prussia minimal numbers • Army of Observation (British organized; German forces) acted as barrier which had Prussia only confronting Austria • This neutralized France • Frederick II’s military genius canceled out his stupidity • August 28, 1758 first engagement between Russian/ Prussians – Russians won (18 000 dead) • Frederick was unimpressed • 1759 Russians moved into Brandenburg • Russians under new command – Saltykov; Frederick didn’t think highly of him • Frederick II underestimated Saltykov • July 23, 1759 • August 12, 1759 Frederick met Saltykov at Kunersdorf o Austrian infantry stepped out and pulled fire on approaching Prussians o Prussians giving way  Russian army out of 50 thousand only 3 000 thousand remained • Frederick wrote to one of his ministers, “I cannot exercise control over my men…I cannot survive this cruel turn of fortune…I believe that everything is lost…I shall not outlive my country…farewell forever!” • Frederick was saved in spite of himself • Diplomatic Revolution – different powers changed sides;Ancient enemies became allies, artificial exercise • Ancient enemies between Russian and France – who will dominate Eastern Europe • Russian side suspicious of Austrian to fight war to the last Russian • These suspicious came to the forefront to dominate Prussians • Fall 1759 Saltykov allowed Frederick breathing space • 1760 Frederick took the fight to the end • August 15, 1760 defeated Austrian commander • November 1760 Torgan another victory against Russians • Frederick 1761, “if fortune continues to treat me so mercilessly – only she can deliver me from my present situation.” • Frederick wrecked the balance of powers • January 5, 1762, Frederick’s enemies died – Tsaritsa Elizabeth successor Tsar Peter III (mentally challenged) • Peter III admired Frederick the great • May 1762 in Peter decided to make peace with Frederick • Alliance with Frederick’s Prussia • Russians ministers were against this – Peter’s wife Catherine II canceled strategic partnership with Peter III and Frederick • Russian’s decisions to exit the war • 18th c. balance of powers reasserted themselves • Summer 1762 • Without Russian support imposable forAustria to regain Silesia • Major impact on Astro-French relations • Basis for return to statue before the war on ally grounds • Frederick could return Silesia and gain Saxony – dependence on British backing • Pitt fallen from power • British prepared for peace – because British won their wars against France between 1759- 1760 • 1762 direct negotiation between Britain and FranceAnglo-French peace signed at Fontainebleau on November 3, 1762 • Treaty of Paris February 10, 1763 TERMS: Europe France agreed to return Hanover to British rule, Hesse, Brunswick returned to their rulers, Prussian territories Cleves, Gelder, Mors remained under French rule, Britain said these territories only be free by say so of Empires • Frederick didn’t make peace Russia would wage war on him • Habertusburg February 15, 1763 Frederick made peace withAustria and Saxony – Prussian keep Silesia • 18th c. balance of power unbreakable • Frederick became peace monger – argued peace was the only way to keep balance of powers stable within Europe Sources of British Strength and Stamina November 5, 2008 • Disruption of international order of French Revolution • French costly defeats in Seven Years War = result was the French Revolution • Britain 1/3 of territory and population of France built up power – withstood the shock of war and prevailed against it • Britain could bring down French power by their naval power • British naval power saw off threat of German aggression in WWI • Britain power land – treble in size 1680-1780 key moments proved strong in some land battles • Could expand rapidly in times of war • Financial strength allowed to pay for foreign troops (German) • Britain could subsidizes war efforts of its allies • War of Spanish Succession ¼ or 25% of Britain’s annual military cost spent on its allies • Seven Years War Britain spent 21% on Prussia’s war effort • At sea Britain showed its powerful might • Britain was able to beat them hollow • Geo-political situation because England was a island is why it had a strong sea powers – and because from past invasions – Britain learnt to have a strong naval base • 1066 – 1688 – Britain was invaded 10 times across the sea • Conscience effort for Britain to build up their sea naval power; England was in constant danger of invasion over the seas • Maritime powers built up for economic and strategic power • Extraordinary national effort – generations • Western Approaches – problems: 1. Seamanship – never continuous maritime power (technical powers) 2. Administration problems 3. Political will – national conscientious • H.M.S. Victory – 1st great ship – launched in 1765 o 21 October 1765 lead Britain to victory o 27 miles of rope o 63 thousand pounds for its construction o 400 000 pounds for its repairs after the Napoleonic Wars • Mid 18th c. 4% of Britain’s national income being invested in the royal navy = command support from generation to generation • Strategic defense against war • Seven Years War – Britain’s greatest colonial war • 1757 – 71% of British Royal Navy were stationed in British land; protecting home waters • Colonial expansion came second • Royal Navy’s purpose – guaranteed Britain’s survival • Maritime communication – life and death situation for Britain • Battle of theAtlantic – only time naval power threatened • Naval dockyards at Portsmouth and Plymouth (largest dockyards) – expanded significantly after Seven Years War • Overseas bases – Gibratar, Port royal, and Halifax – replaced Bosten for NorthAmerica base • 1760 height of Seven Years War • British spend a lot of maintaining lifestyle of naval crew • 18th c. royal disaster – over lapping jurisdiction and too many sub-divisions • The Navy Board • 17th c. administrator – Samuel Pepys = regenerate royal navy • Rough direction between political and navy board • Court admirals – oversees things – not the most efficient administration • 4 men turn royal navy into geniuses: Samuel Pepys, Sir Richard Haddock, GeorgeAnson, Sir Charles Middleton • 1801 (Britain in poor state) Lord St. Vincent in charge of administration/ sacked a 1/3 of dockyard wars • Britain state revenge department collected and spent money more carefully than France • William Pitt (The Younger) had placed Britain to face France • 1783 quarter of a million pounds Britain • Pitt able to pay off government debt quite quickly through taxation whereas France as unable to do so The Eclipse of France: Part One November 10, 2008 • July 4, 1917 American kernel made an Independence Day speech – made in Paris (during WWI) said very little • Franco-American partnership • August 1789 Declaration of Rights of Man • France involvement inAmerican war of Independence disaster for French monarchy irretrievable financial revenue; revolution renounced French monarchy • Evident aftermath of Seven Years War- French experiencing eclipse of power on an international scale and shift of balance of powers eastward, Prussia,Austria, and Russia now have the power: expressed in two events: • Russo-Turkish War – 1768-1774- territorial gains for Russia – France was unable to help Turkey who was being attacked by Russia; decline in French/ Turkish power • 1772 – Prussia Russian and Austria took parts of Poland (First Partition of Poland) 1793 (Second Partition Treaty) and 1795 (Third Partition Treaty) finished off Poland not restored until WWI • Balance of Powers eastward a bit of an illusion –Anglo-French confrontations still evident • France self inflicted weakness • France regained its power 1790s • France decline was financial mismanagement • 1751 next war (Seven Years War) cost of next war would be about the same as the Austrian Succession • This was an inaccurate forecast • Cost twice as much for French • Mislead by mismanagement this crippled French monarchy/ state • 1754-1759 3 men resided over French finances: o Moreau de Sechelles o Pyenec de Moras o Boullongne • Solutions to France’s financial problem: issue more currency • Alternative – borrow money – no guarantee they would be able to get their money back • They could increase taxes – was unpopular • High level magistrate courts – not elected/ 15 times in 1750s and 25 in 1760s Parliament de Paris legal complaints on increase in French taxes • Unattractive alternatives: government tried to finance Seven Years War with credit • French debt 2.3 billion Livres • Didn’t look like French can get out of debt • No doubt French state in 1763 in damage • Then 1770s French get involved in another war • 1774 Americans revolted against British Royal War • Vergennes said French would have good luck in the next war “a single and unexpected peace of fortune for France” • He thought if France could get someAmerican territory then they would regain some of its power and put Britain in its place; focus was mainly European - gave Britain a slap then regain balance of power within Europe PROBLEM: because of financial difficulties • Turgot French financial adverse warned Louis XVI not to get involved in damages in getting involved in American War of Independence “first gunshot will drive the state to bankruptcy” • 2 May, 1776 King of France authorized a million Livres to provide arms and supplies to Americans to beat the British • Prove their ability to flight Britain • France needed time to build up its navy – that is why set up the company “Roderrique Hurtalez et Compangine” set up by Vergennes • October 1777 French victory at Saratoga • Summer 1778 France mobilized its forces and declared war on Britain = this won American Independence • Fall 1781 – Franco-American under Rochambea and Washington at 14 thousand troops gun by larger British force – British not desperate • September 5, 1781 France victory over British naval power at Chesapeake Bay doomed Cornwall’s and his troops • October 19, 1781 military event that determined the outcome of the war • Peace signed at Versailles – third September 1783 • French didn’t get bonus by sponsoringAmerican War; another fallout vastly increased French debt • 1783 debt 3.4 billion Livres – incapable of paying off • One possible outcome: French became bankrupt – collapse of powers: o Vacuum of powers o French state failing to protect survival of its citizens The Eclipse of France: Part Two November 12, 2008 • Late 18th c. mismanagement of French finances which brings down France • Utter ciaos and no repair for France – paralysis • Not apparent immediately • Aftermath over British defeat – French government more ambitious scheme • Royal French Government spent event more money on expanding military and navy • 1785 this appeared to be paying off in the Dutch Republic • Dutch signed formal alliance with France • France able to challenge British navy in route (the English Channel) • Cape of Good Hope (Southern tip ofAfrica) and Ceylon bases to challenge Britain/ Dutch support also helped • Problem was the French finances • 5 billion Livres of French debt in 1787 • August 1787 Ottoman Empire in reactions the Russian invasion and they declared war on Russia • Catherine the great looked toAustria (Joseph II) signed compact to defend each other in 1781 • Attached February 1788 • Prussia (Frederick William II) wanted territorial gain • Dutch with alliance with France and another allyAustria (MariaAntoinette) • July 1788 shift in European systems – Sweden attacked Russia (Catherine the Great) • Russia now distracted to the North • Southern Netherlands (Belgium) now rebelled against Habsburg empire and became separate state • 1788-89 looked likeA. Habsburg would break up • Russia beat Sweden • Austrian Turks declining power • Russia, Austria and Prussia now the major powers • Things different in the west – because of French weakness • France became immobilized • Torgot – said, “One cannot prevent oneself from being amazed, he should be so inferior in strength when we are so superior in resources • French failing as a state – not fulfilling its primary duty – that is why a revolution happened • 1792 French desperate for money • French Revolution did its job • France’s international paralysis that brought upon the demise of the monarchy • July 14, 1789 – flood of French political literature – 1st event in French Revolution Bastille • One published – focused on France’s international demise “ publicly despised by her enemies, France today is nothing in the political system of Europe.” • Jacques Brissot (INS) – they were imposed by modernizing groups – minority • Crusade for foreign war – kill the revolution • Focused on Diplomatic Revolution – saw withAustrian’s • 18 January 1792 flood of French national assembly Vergniaud, “see that the canceling of this treaty that is at revolution is necessary in foreign affairs in both international and France • Louis XVI and wife MarieAntoinette has a different outlook – war would be a way of pushing French Revolution forward • MarieAntoinette and brother Leopold II collaborated • September 8, 1781 MarieAntoinette said to Leopold II, “it is for the emperor to put an end to the disturbances to the French Revolution” “Everything has been overturned by force” • Leopold II more interested in profit • Varennes – royal family back in hands of French Revolutionaries • French Revolutionists only proved this • 1791-92 Berlin, Vienna, all sending threats to each other • March 1792 o Death of Leopold II – successor by son Francis II – he wanted to help out MarieAntoinette o March 15, 1792 o April 28, 1792 Habsburg royal council decided that they will declare war on French with Prussia • War was a disaster for France at first • By end of summer it looked all over • September 22, 1792 at Valmy French disaster • Prussian military thunder cannon on French attack The French Revolutionary Wars – Part One November 17, 2008 • 20 September 1792 Valmy field – eastern French/ Prussian army began to open fire on Dumouriez and Kellerman (French) • There was much at steak: o Austria/ Prussia invasion to restore French o Out gunned French o 52 000 French army o 34 000 Prussian army • French half trained army to face Frederick William II • “Long live the nation” – nation is France • French fighting sovereign nation • French didn’t collapse immediately • Prussians went away – French remained control of battle field • 500 casualties • Neutral Observer – German Goethe; evening of Valmy said this day and this play open a new phase in the world • French victory meant – survival of the revolutionary state • September 20 1792 – French national convention meet – first time – day after voted to abolish the monarchy and establish democracy • Created liberalism, socialism, state terrorism, and anarchy • One legacy- Once because of military revolution = importance of antennary- heavy fire power = political character of war making • New war in the making • Majority of the French infantry were part of the revolution • November 6 1792 = Battle of Jemappes • Dumouriez marched his army (40 000) toAustria • Austrians were defended • Impact on international order and stability • 1790-1820 = Europe experiences 3 times more battles than the previous 300 years • International system could not survive • Balance of power shattered by French military revolution • Revolutionary state presented ideology challenge = secular challenge • November 19 1792 – creed on French convention offered practical aid to help oppressed people in Europe • Brissot 26 November 1792 “We can only be at peace once Europe and the whole of Europe at that is blazing from end to end” • French politicians began to speak at rewards by liberating the European relations • French revolutionary demanded France national fortress • January 31 1793 – Donton rallied troops for protection of nation demanded “the limits of France’s are marked out by nature, we shall reach them at their four points the Rhine to the east, theAlps to the South East, and Pyrenes in South • This means the disappearance of Belgium as a separate state • The irritated Britain because they took great lengths to keep French out to low countries • Strategic and commercial challenge to Britain • British realized their interest were at stake • British secret negotiations with France • January 21 1753 – head cut off Louis 16th • February 1 1793 – French declared war on Britain • Britain followed by Spain, Russia, Sardinian • March 18 1793 – Austrians defeat on French army • April 5 1793 Dumouriez’s army tried to shot him • Government spread across French meat with regional French – Vendee • Foreign front went worst Spain invaded France from the front • July 23 1793 French troops surrendered • July 17 1793 Conde took control of • August 27 1793 French rebelled surrendered French naval base • Britain, Austria, Prussia, Spain, Sardinian and most German states – opposed France The French Revolutionary Wars: Part Two November 19, 2007 • 1793 French diplomacy had managed to provoke most of Europe into arms against it • Large parts of France were invaded on four fronts • Pressure of internal challenges • Pressure of internal and external meet –August 1793 French base in Toulon was surrendered to British royal navy • July 19 1793 British PM William Pitt, the Younger wrote, “if we (coalition of great powers in Europe) distress the enemy on more sides than one, while their internal distract contractions it seems possible that they can oppose any resistance”. • Revolutionary state was able to fight back • 23 August 1793 proclaimed “Levee en Masse” for purpose of national defense (had to recruit more solders) (10s of thousands flocked to be recruited) • Ayear later September 1794 largest military the world had ever seen – 1, 690,000 French troops to fight • ¾ million men for French War effort • Military man power required new style of warfare • Prepared in advance by Lazare Carnot (Organizer of victory – said by Napoleon) military officer turned politician • Committee of Public Safety: • More democratic system • Repressed rebellions and got rid of their enemies • Strict instrument of public defense • February 1793 Carnot re-organizedAmalgame • Size of French army revolutionized how they fought e.g. faster • New armies lived off of the land “war nourishes war” • Carnot new ways of fighting – let them continue marching to enemy lines • Carnot said, “act offensively, and in mass peruse the enemy until he is utterly destroyed • Now became battles of inhalation • Impact of spread, friability etc. • Republic struck back 6-8 September 1793 French army won battle at Hondschoote • 15-17 October 1793 battle of Wattignies under Jourdan fought invadingAustria troops • Attached Austria from 4 fronts • Note of triumph for Republic December 1793 • Napoleon reclaimed Toulon • Key victory came following year at Fleurus 26 June 1794 French army took defense stance to protect themselves against invadingAustrians • Concurred Belgium for France for the next 20 years and the Dutch Republic • Enemies failed to concentrate their power on France • Prussia, Austria, and Russia more concentrated on Poland • March 1794 distracted by Eastern Europe (Poland) this helped France • Austrians never concentrated their troops along the Rhine • November 1794/ Frederick William II signed treaty with French Republic • 5 April 1795 formal peace treaty of Basle = Prussians
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