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University of Toronto St. George
Dax Urbszat

Every major peace treaty must be signed in major international peace conference Peace of Westphalia (birth of modern intl rel)– was the first major peace treaty that concluded a conflict Territorial settlement they agreed on in 1648 lasted for no less than 150 years – so clearly tremendous achievements 1761 – Europe can thank the treaty of Westphalia that achieves through diplomacy through negotiation therefore will maintain the stability & European state system (jaja crousseau?) 30 years’ war – more devastation than ww2 (approx 5 million died in germany – 1/3 of the European population) 30 years brought on by: -schism/breakdown of the church into to warring factions – protestants, and Christians -military/technological revolution (gunpowder/muskets) brought unprecedented carnage 1517 – martin luther nailing the 95 theses (questioned morality/means of income of church)indulgences etc, leo 4 threatened him with excommunication, etc german princes wanted political freedom so they supported martin luther – created a holy roman empire catholic priests wanted to abolish Protestantism because martin luther’s 95 theses affected their income catholics resisted Protestantism for a while for a long time Swedish king gustavus, asked all protestants to join in the war & fight (no chance for neutrality – you are either with us or against us) French general - “im French first, and then catholic” – he would pursue the benefits of france, and then religion September 21, 2011 The French developed a stabilized bureaucracy due to taxations, etc, and due to their population (14-20million) they were the richest state The French created the largest army – 100,000 during this time was unheard of, rising to 4-500,000 during war times France had a young, and ambitious prince (1661 – Louis XIV) “I AM the state” – he created his own wills, desires, objectives for that of France – what France wanted, is always what Louis wanted Glory, etc was common for princes of that time, but he wanted extreme glory – this pursuit of glory was an attempt to make Europe see hoe great France was He wanted to be the apex of French society – so France should be the apex of European society; wanting recognition from other countries that France was the most Christian/important state So, Versailles was built (20 years) – to show off this ‘importance,’ but it didn’t have washrooms – not a great place for foreign diplomats War – the ‘manly’ way to gain glory Major characteristic of Louis’ foreign policy – some say he pursued war at all costs, some say aggression is part and parcel of such a strong state, some say he wanted to become the Holy Roman Emperor himself, some say all that he wanted was security – all he wanted was France to remain a viable member of the European society As he aged, Louis’ foreign policy changed; evolved France emerged as a victorious state – gaining the most from the treaty of Westphalia, as well as gaining alliances (Dutch, English) – not only was France secure, but it also had a voice in German issues BUT the French fought with the Spaniards for 11 years after the Treaty of W which ended with another treaty (of Pyrenees) (through which Louis gained land, and a new bride who was asked to renounce her claims to Spanish throne – however, the Spanish didn’t pay the ridiculous dowry, they just agreed because they wanted to come to peace – France knew this, but they wanted to maintain diplomatic friendships/land to increase their own territories) France was always a land power – they never really cared about naval power because they were not an island nation (like England) Spanish border was not a threat to Louis, as the 2 passes large armies could get through were under French control German border against Rhine River, even that is a difficult border Area of concern: Border with the Spanish Netherlands Almost every river flowed into France The countries were below sea level (protective barrier) The proximity of Paris/Versailles to the border French lawyers looked for a legal loophole in the dowry that would allow them to claim the area of the Spanish Netherlands – making France even more stable/secure; increasing Louis’ glory Alliances with the Dutch, Swedish, British (French diplomacy) 24 of May1665 – 70,000 of a French army took over the Spanish Netherlands (better equipped, trained, fed) (took about 5 months to get the up to about Brussels) Louis’ unwillingness to stop the invasion alarmed his alliances – mainly the Dutch (Dutch & English were at war with each other over the states, and colonies; both were French allies) the English and the Dutch signed a peace agreement because they didn’t want the French to take over Europe while they were too busy fighting each other The 3 (with Sweden) signed a secret agreement in January 1668 – The triple alliance, and they offered to mediate between France and Spain, in order to refrain from war The Secret alliance had a secret clause; if France refused to settle the issue diplomatically, they would join Spain militarily, and force France to stop Louis found out about this hidden clause, so he sat down with them, and they mediated – ending the 1 year war of devolution France agreed in Treaty of Appalachian/a la chapelle (?) to give up some of the territories they had acquired during the war, but Carlos (king of Spain) gave up the Dutch border because he wanted the French and Dutch to continue with their animosity – if he hadn’t, France and Netherlands would most likely have made up Spain did this because they figured they would gain more from this, than keeping the area for themselves Louis (sun-king) was outraged by his allies – especially that of the Dutch (stabbing France in the back) but the true embarrassment came when the Dutch made a coin of someone stopping the sun? (Louis the sun god) So, Louis went out to seek revenge on the Dutch republic, since he had lost so much money and stuff trying to help the Dutch gain independence • Dutch did better economically – the economic powerhouse of not only Europe, but perhaps the world, regardless of their minimal population • What allowed this was their colonies, 9,000 ships to carry the world’s goods, natural resources of their lands, and their colonies, and selling to people in Europe, Dutch stock exchange – they set the price that was accepted all over the world • Bank of Amsterdam was the strongest, wealthiest bank in that time • The French were undermined by the Dutch in various aspects (economically, etc) • 1664: tariffs introduced to undermine Dutch economy, but the Dutch retaliated – limiting French imports, and lowering their prices; French could not compete • It was decided that the only way to deal with the Dutch, was to make the Dutch a part of France – avenging Louis’ embarrassment, and absorbing their economic superiority Tasks before this could commence: • Triple Alliance had to be destroyed (that forced Louis to settle his Spanish feud) • Isolate the Dutch – ensure that no one would/could come to the aid of the Dutch • Improve the French military so that the Dutch had a force to be reckoned with They excelled Triple Alliance: • Immediately France approached Britain – Louis offered 225,000 pounds a year to king Charles, so he could create an absolutist state, and Charles wanted to become a Catholic which gained him another 150,000 pounds (Treaty of Dover, 1966) • France approached Sweden – within a year bought every Swedish (?) – Swedish agreed to support France in any military action • Thus, the Triple Alliance fell apart, but the French went a few steps further… Bavaria, etc in the Holy Roman Empire signed treaties of neutrality saying the emperor would not be allowed to cross over their territories to aid the Dutch Louis approached the Holy Roman Emperor – offered support to Austrians, and assured they would not be attacked by France (treaties of friendship/neutrality) within 2 years Denmark was isolated Militarily: • French armies settled in Bahrain (?) and created a passageway to the Dutch borders • 1671: First French troops moved across German territory beside Denmark January: Denmark decided to beef up their armies Britain also attacked Denmark April 6, 1672 – 120,000 French soldiers crossed over from the West & East, rendering the Dutch defenseless If Louis had taken Amsterdam the war would’ve been over in that summer, but he refused – glory After the summer, Dutch were supported worldwide, and as a last-ditch attempt, the Dutch flooded a good amount of Denmark, so Amsterdam became an island so the only way to take over Amsterdam was by naval force, but the Dutch navy was better than the British & French combined Louis was forced to sit down & negotiate His terms: • Hand over the Dutch state • Make Denmark Catholic (impossible) • Send an annual apology to France Dutch president guy was lynched, along with his brother for not protecting them – William of Orange was elected, was a good defender of the Dutch for the next 2 decades • Dutch foreign policy brought incredible results the next years • Spanish & Austrians signed a treaty with the Dutch • 1673: French had a number of enemies • 1674: Secret treaty of Dover came to an end: British saw no military benefits to fighting on the French side, and seeing Spanish come to the aid of the Dutch – creating an economic downside for the English, as well as the English parliamentary system becoming so close to becoming an absolutist monarchy, like the French, so Britain was forced to join the Dutch • Louis was forced to reassess their options, but they still could outfight any army – they were still strong militarily, but they ran out of money, because they only anticipated the war would be a year • They lost all their wealth, and went into debt, and every year after 1674, the debt doubled • The French were forced to negotiate: the first target of this diplomatic activity was the French The terms: • The French would move out of every Dutch area they occupied • The Dutch would not have to pay any indemnity • French would terminate both the 1664 & 1667 tariffs they placed on the Dutch • Dutch signed a peace treaty, and gained everything they once had, and the anti-French force fell apart (without Dutch money, the Spanish, Austrians, Germans could not continue with the war) • Sept 1678: Austrians, then Spaniards, then everyone else signed a peace treaty with the French – bringing the Dutch war to an end • French easily defeated their opponents militarily – but military terms are not the only focus in foreign affairs – no European state was willing to allow Louis to gain his greed/glory • This quest created a unified European state • Dutch economy was still strong, never became a part of France – irritated Louis September 28 , 2011 • France realized that Spain was no longer a threat – it was a declining power • The real threat became the German states • Louis wanted to support the Swedish, so he wanted Denmark & Branderburg (?) to give up the land they took from the Swedes (demonstrating his military clout) • The entire French army was still standing • Every time Louis made a political statement, every state had to consider their non-compliance would result in military action • Louis decided to seek more territories through diplomacy as opposed to military action • Again, lawyers looked back on old treaties to see if there were any loopholes that would allow the French to take more land • Louis claimed that these advancements were made in the name of French security • All these territories they looked at turned out to belong to France which angered the Germans, and Dutch but they had to consider the standing French army, and had to concede • William of Orange realized this meant that France would dominate the political economic scene of Europe – it was the rise of France, but his hands were tied • The rest of the European states were too preoccupied to resist by internal/external issues (i.e. fighting, making money, etc) • Louis decided that every entrance to France had to either be shut down or under French control; he got 2, and the 3 was shut down (Rhine River) • Strasbourg became part of France when 30,000 French soldiers camped outside the town – in order to “gain protection” the mayor conceded • In the same day, they acquired a fortress in Italy • Louis now was in total control of many major military posts in Europe • The tipping of the balance of power made the other European nations decide a permanent institution was necessary to resist Louis’ expansion • Louis committed a series of blunders that alarmed Europe • Louis aided the Ottoman Empire in its first major offensive to Christianity in Europe • Dutch war undermined Austria – they were more or less defenseless • Within a month, the Turks reached Vienna • As a whole, Europe helped Austria defeat the Ottoman Empire (the pope compelled them to defend their “Christian brethren”) only one ruler did no respond • Louis said that the best he could do was award them with neutrality – financial aid was out of the question • As a further symbol of his disrespect towards the pope, Louis attacked the Spanish Netherlands, knowing that most of the states were pre-occupied with the going on in Austria • The Austrians with the help of many Europeans, pushed the Turks back into the Balkans (the start of the starving of the Ottoman empire) • This was a huge Christian victory & united Europe for a bit • Louis gained the Spanish Netehrlands • 1683: Spanish launched a war on France, hoping Austria would help them • However, a year later the war was over (Spain was drained financially, and militarily) • Treaty of Regansburg (1684) meant that the Spanish Netherlands were essentially handed over to France • The treaty took 20 years to settle • Louis gained a lot of land, and was very happy • Louis, however, realized that his aggression towards Austria had given him the nickname of the “Christian Turk” so he decided to get on the pope’s good side • 1685: Louis revoked the Edict of Nantes (which allowed French Protestants (Huguenots) their religion in France) • The Edict was originally designed to quell arguments between French Catholics & Protestants, Protestants were then forced to flee France • This was done in an attempt to demonstrate how “Christian” France was • Backfired • Many Protestants left France, but not enough to hurt them • Except for the fact that Protestants were the smart, helpful people to society - they were the most talented doctors, generals, lawyers, doctors, merchants • HUGE blow to France • Protestants went to England, Italy, Denmark • Alarmed Louis’ only Protestant allies (i.e. Sweden & some German states that had stuck with Louis the whole time) – how could they remain allies when he so hated Protestants so much to eliminate his financial elite • It further backfired as he ended up in a huge argument with the Pope over the French church (as it was the richest institution & Louis wanted a piece of it) • Louis got what he wanted, but created antagonism between the Vatican & Versailles October 3, 2011 • Treaty of Neinigan was written in French – making French the language of diplomacy • Louis didn’t support Austrians against Turks, Pope, came to blows with the Holy Roman Emperor – all political blunders • Sept 1688 – Louis’ manifesto; “Europe, recognize my gains, or else…” • Austrians had just recaptured Belgrade in Sept 1688, which gained Leopold leadership in Europe • Therefore, no one responded to Louis’ manifesto, so Louis attacked Philipsburg • This started the longest, and bloodiest war of his reign up to that point • Louis had to fight it alone; alienated all of Europe (9 years’ war – fought in Africa, Asia, North America as well) • Weapons were updated – bloodier warfare • Louis realized the Germans as his main opponents (no longer Spanish), then changed his main opponent to the British • 120 yearthfollowing, French-British retaliation, resulting in war • Sept 24 , 1688 – attack on Philipsburg successful; within 6 weeks, the city fell • This allowed him to secure every single entry into France on the Eastern side (every gate, bridge, etc secured by French forces) • French success = utter disaster, because this attack triggered a unified action – the Holy Roman Empire, the rest of Europe banded together, tired of Louis’ intimidation (what Louis had been trying to avoid) • They created a “Grand Alliance” – great military power • William of Orange was at the heart of this alliance, which eventually brings Louis down • Functioning balance of power is coming into play, here (between the ruler of France, and the rest of the continent) • 12 May 1689 – creation of the G.A • G.A’s primary objective – absolute defeat of France • The original borders of the Treaty of Westphalia to be restored • Every single state that participated contributed all their resources • No state in the alliance would participate in negotiations with France • France could not demonstrate its superiority; was brought to its knees • William of Orange says that in order to preserve its independence, France must be brought down • Louis understood many of the implications of his actions • William of Orange was asked to participate in a coup d’etat because the new king of England – James – was Catholic, and had just produced a Catholic heir (they wanted to remain Protestant) • 1688 – William of Orange went to England, and started the Glorious Revolution • Louis knew the implications of an invasion of England, especially since they were a contending state, but he didn’t stop it because he thought that William would create a civil war that would rage on for years – making William too busy to interfere in France’s business – ridding himself of his most stubborn opponent • This was a gross miscalculation – within 2 months, William forces James into exile; turned England into an extremely anti-French state • William created a national bank, etc – becoming so financially stable that they were able to provide financial aid to almost every other state involved • France had no allies, but it had the largest army of that time • The size of the army could not compare to the advanced weaponry of their opponents (Germans, Dutch) • Impossible for the French to pay for new equipment, retrain troops • 3 major battles in which the French were able to hold their own, if not defeat the other states • It became apparent that all the other states could not defeat the French militarily • Invasion of Philipsburg’s secondary objective: make the Austrians bring some troops from the Balkans to secure the Holy Roman Empire – allowing the Turks to survive, and pool their resources, recapturing Belgrade • Problems arose for the coalition; it began to unravel – they pondered how to make states reliable in their roles • While France was militarily sound, their resources were dwindling; • 1.5 million people died in a French famine • Louis was forced to cut funding to the French navy, allowing the English to become the strongest naval power • August 1697 – Louis & the Duke of Savoie made a deal: Louis would return 2 fortresses acquired before the 9 years’ war, as well as Nice & the area around it – a deal the Duke could not refuse • This took the Italians out of the war, allowing Louis to move troops from the South to the North – making it impossible for the Dutch/English to invade France • Sept 20, 1697 – Peace of Reitzig was signed between Denmark, England & France (deliberated for 4 months) behind the backs of the Spanish, etc • Louis was forced to acknowledge William as the King of England, France was forced to give up a lot of territory • The greatest outcome – France was forced to return the lowlands in the Spanish-Netherlands • Louis was so gracious with the land because Carlos II was on his deathbed (King of Spain) and Louis wanted to gain brownie points, in hopes of benefiting from the succession of the Spanish throne • So, the 9 years’ war ended How would Europe respond to Louis’ acceptance of the will? • Phillip did become the king of Spain • William III recognized Philip as the king of Spain • Leopold was the only one who didn’t accept it, and demanded territory • Louis refused his request – couldn’t just start dividing Spain • Conflict ensued How did this become a small regional conflict to a largescale war? • Louis committed a number of serious political and diplomatic blunders similar to those prior to the 9 years’ war • In the name of the new Spanish king, Louis sent troops to take over the Spanish Netherlands – to put pressure on the British and Netherlands to show that Philip has power or whatever • France and the Netherlands became neighbors – no land between them now • Louis remained at their posts, regardless of the concerns expressed by the Danish – violating the terms of the Treaty of Reichstag? • Next problem: Philip being king of Spain meant his claim to the throne had to be removed – bringing up the possibility of the unification of Spain and France, resulting in a hegemony • Louis did not think Philip would unify them, but instead would come to France, and renounce the Spanish throne, but failed to tell that to the rest of Europe • There was fear that these 2 states would end up as one • Philip’s first declaration was to grant the Aciento (slave trade) to the French crown/traders, Louis being a quarter of a shareholders for such • France had to stop prior wars due to running out of money, but this slave trade would provide them with funds – allowing them to last longer in wars • September 1701: Louis recognized James III as the rightful king of England • But why would he do that - knowing there would be consequences? - he wanted to score brownie points with the Vatican (James III – Catholic, William was Protestant) - violated his previous statements – he had supported the Protestant movement at first, now it seemed he was challenging the stability of English domestic affairs • The rest of Europe again decided to stage a coup • The new grand alliance was created – reflecting, mainly, the needs of the Dutch & English: - France & Spain had to be separated with no chance of a hegemony - All barrier territories had to be given back to the Dutch - Only after these were achieved, they decided to repay the Austrians - Gave Louis an out: 8 months to rectify his actions, or war would ensue - Louis embarrassed & undermined them, killing any chance at a resolution, BUT • The French army’s weapons now matched those of the Germans, etc • Crops had been exceptional since the last war (4 years ago) • Had numerous allies (Spain – tremendous asset; Portugal – as Louis had supported their independence from Spain; Bavaria – recently had a falling out with Hapsburgs, and therefore were more afraid of them than France; Hapsburgs) • May 15 1702 – Grand Alliance declared war on France & their allies (The war of French Succession) – one of the bloodiest, longest wars with the no major breakthroughs, gains, etc • British intercepted a Spanish ship loaded with silver, sinking it (only British victory, pretty much) • Duke of Savoie switched sides, and joined the Grand Alliance • Hungarians started a revolution in the Hapsburg Empire – putting a huge strain on them – especially of a financial nature • 1704: Hapsburg empire under duress on 3 fronts – with one major French attack, it was apparent that they would collapse • Louis decided that his only option was to capture Vienna, which would force Austria out of the Grand Alliance, which would inevitably mean their collapse • William was keen to fight the French, and retain the balance of power, but he died in a horse riding accident • He was succeeded by Queen Anne, who was equally avid about the cause • She enlisted John Churchill, who becamse the leading military general of the Grand Alliance which was huge • In terms of commanding, the allies pretty much succeeded in outdoing the French • Louis ended up with “dusty” generals (Nick is a fag) • All of the good generals had either died or retired • Military fortune was turned to the Grand Alliance • Churchill knew Austria could not be defeated, and so he sent them relief forces • In 1 month, the English had managed to get a huge amount of soldiers into the heart of Europe • They met the French army, and in half a day of battle, wiped them out • This saved Austria – allowing them to deal with the Hungarian • Louis’ main ally was knocked out of the war (Bavaria) • This left Louis with only Spanish support – 40 years into the war, it turns out the Spanish couldn’t even pay for the war, and they weren’t even that great of an ally • 1706: turning point of the war: “year of horror” for French; “year of miracles” for the Grand Alliance • Battle of Ramier: after having suffered a major defeat, Louis had to show the Grand Alliance that there was still a fighting spirit in the French by scoring a major victory • So, he tried to take over the Spanish Netherlands • Churchill wouldn’t allow this • He defeated the French, and destroyed their army • For the first time the entire Spanish Netherlands fell to the Grand Alliance, which was a huge military catastrophe for France • In Northern Italy, in the Battle of Turin, the Duke of Savoie showed his military success and defeated France • France was now open to invasion from 2 fronts • For the first time, the French army was unable to protect France • There was no hope for success for Louis – this was the first time he felt compelled to end the war on the Alliance’s terms • But, Louis continued to fight October 17, 2011 • 1706/1707: England has become Great Britain/United Kingdom (alliance with Scotland has been formed) • Start focusing on the needs of the British than the alliance • John Churchill introduces a new type of war – realizing it had to be fought on a different scale • Was more a political than military issue • Britain was so headstrong on breaking up Spain & France’s hegemony that they would not accept a treaty thingy – they wanted Spain as a prize for the British • Brits were the strongest military power • Dutch had to follow the leadership of the British; Churchill in particular • British would have come to an agreement with France, as they agreed that Dutch security was important • By the end of the war, Dutch weren’t important to the British – it was no longer their main objective • The war would go on, unless Spain became part of the Austrian crown, because the British figured they could get more out of the Austrians by helping Charles of Austria take over Spain, once the war was over what did the Austrians think about this? • Leopold died in 1705, succeeded by his son, Joseph who was more politically tactful • Joe secured British subsidiaries • He paid them in the hopes that they would fight France in the Spanish lowlands, and along the Rhine • Instead, the British used to money to fight Hungary • Brits had to turn a blind eye in order to achieve a greater defeat • Joe used the subsidiaries to get more territory in Italy • By mid-war, there was no Austrian support • The British had to fight on their own and he Dutch had to fight on in the war – this is the same dilemma Louis faced in the 9 years’ war • A decision had to be made: which branch of the military did they support? Army or navy? • The Dutch chose their army • This gave the British the opportunity to become the strongest naval power • 1706: Madrid was taken by Charles, and it seemed that all was lost for France, Louis, Philip, and Spanish • 1708: Louis made one last effort to re-take the Spanish Netherlands – if they took the North part, they would cut the ties between the aid from England and their troops stationed there • But, Louis chose 2 shitty commanders – Duke of Burgundy, and Van Dam (D.B had no prior military experience) • The outcome in half a day of battle – Allied victory, French defeat – making them take a defensive position on the French borders • From there, Churchill wanted to show his ability to compel Louis to accept, and show the British desire to terminate the war • 1709: terrible year in France in domestic developments • France approached the Dutch – attempt to break up the Grand Alliance, which the Dutch refused & informed Churchill of the major points of the French proposal: • To return the Dutch borders • Settle the issues of Spain – Louis agreed that Philip should give up the crown to be rewarded elsewhere • John Churchill rejected the proposal – the British did not get anything out of it both commercially and territorially • He insisted the French agree to these proposals, and give them territory in the new world, as well as giving up the slave trade • March 1709: 40 articles presented to Louis, he accepted 39 outright • The acceptance of these terms would result in a 2 month truce, not a peace treaty • The only article he rejected was that Louis had to turn the French army on his grandson if he did not voluntarily give up the Spanish crown • The battle waged on again • The French fought desperately as they had to defend Paris – resulted in the bloodiest battle, they had to give up their post, but pulled together and were able to fight another battle • The carnage was so vicious that the Allies lost almost twice as many soldiers as the French • The Allies had no more stomach, or army to continue this speedy war – they would have to return to war of attrition? • 1710: greatest propaganda pamphlet introduced to the British public • Jonathon Swift’s satirical overview of the war was the reason the Tories were elected, and brought into power • They set out to terminate the war • January 1712: British & France come to an understanding: France & Spain remain separate France must repay the British for what they spent in the war, and the British would withdraw their subsidiaries from the other two • Joseph 2: dies, and he is succeeded Charles – King of Spizzy (reflective of the Hapsburg hegemony) • July 1712: Dutch & Austrians tried, on their own, to invade France without British forces, or subsidiaries • Both were defeated; France’s power was evident • March 1713: Peace of Utrecht was signed. Terms: Spain & France had to be kept separate – they could never be unified Philip would remain King of Spain British demanded French territories in N.A: Newfoundland, etc British demanded the aciento – slave trade from Spain British received a trading alliance thingy in S.A at the expense of the French & Spanish French were forced to give up the 10 barriers on the Spanish Netherlands – ensured Dutch security Louis was never ever allowed to threaten the British Louis had to acknowledge the Protestant succession in Britain Duke of Hanover was invited to give a Prince to the British empire to ensure a Protestant succession • March 1714: Austrians signed the treaty between France & the Holy Roman Empire – but no French or Austrian losses in territory • Sept 1715: Austrians agreed to pay for 6 posts to be maintained for the Dutch October 19, 2011 • French & British cooperation was required to ensure success of the Treaty of Utrecht, so they signed an entente to say that they wouldn’t support each other’s enemies • This forced all secondary powers to sign as well • Charles 6 : Austria, never gave up the idea that he would be King of Spain/Philippo (King of Spain) still wanted to get back lost Italian land – this caused tension between the two • 1713ish: not only Austria as a main power in the HRE – the Saxons emerged (kings of Poland), Hanover (invited to rule over Britain), Prussia (given title of a kingdom because of their support in the war of Spanish succession) • This caused bickering between the states as to who would be the dominant power between them Utrecht: • The new King of England (George) was annoyed – spoke no English, had get approval of parliament for everything, no standing army, not able to just raise taxes at will, despite this he understood national interest, and did foreign policy well • When Queen Anne died, the Tories were still in power… thinking to invite James III over to rule Britain but he was nixed because he was Catholic – the Brits would rather have a Turk than a Catholic ruling them • Primary business for first 3/4 years of George’s ruling: securing the Protestant succession • 1716: Dutch-British agreement of friendship is signed • 1717: Dutch found out about the French-British entente and signed onto it, creating a triple alliance • The Rise of Russia as a Great Power: • 1721: Russians won the Great Northern War with Sweden – replacing them as the greatest power in NE Europe • Their influence, and shit like that kept growing – making them unignorable in political developments in Europe • October 24 , 2011 th • October 1740: Charles 6 died • Succeeded by Maria Teresa (taking over the Hapsburg throne) • Most accepted this except Bavaria & Saxony cause they had a long lost claim to the throne • Maria Teresa had the sympathy of all great powers, if not their diplomatic support; did not challenge the succession • December 16: 1740 – Prussia, Frederick II initiated an attack against Silesia (Austria) • This initiated the war of Austrian Succession • Prussia had recently gained the title of a kingdom, the rulers wanted to preserve their state and created a powerful army, but no one expected Frederick to challenge Austria • Once Frederick took Silesia, it started a conflict between Spain, England, France, Sweden, and the Germanic lands • European crisis ensued • Austria was unmatched militarily & diplomatically by the Prussians Frederick: not a military guy, played flute, identified with Voltaire, his whole upbringing was very “un-man-like,” his father would beat him almost to death, his uncle had to literally stop his father from murdering him, so no one really expected him to start this huge war cause clearly he was a fairy • Everyone expected Frederick to undo his father’s military work • But, that was not the case What was his objective? • Territorial expansion (Prussia was scattered – wanted to make up for the lack of unity, and their being exposed to attack; more land would make them more stable) • Saw this as Prussia’s only opportunity to expand • The succession was not fully uncontested (Saxony & Bavaria) • Austria was broke, and had a shitty army at this point • Russia was having a succession crisis as well – no foreign policy because they had no leader (therefore unable to intervene) and they were Austria’s main ally • Britain & Spain were on the verge of a war overseas in North America, and because the French & Spanish had an agreement, none of them would be able to intervene on behalf of Austria • Britain & French would be seeking an agreement with Prussia • The French wanted stability in Europe while they were fighting the Brits overseas • The British wanted to protect Hanover • The was a golden opportunity, and the taking of Silesia doubled Prussia’s population, and their economic gains were good • Frederick made Maria Teresa an offer to buy off parts of the Empire, but she declined, because everyone would be jumping down her throat and shit, and so she turned to the military to regain her empire • 1741: Austrians were badly beaten in a battle • French foreign minister wanted to restore French prestige and challenge British superiority because he was aware that British & French interests were no longer the same • But, he was aware that they’d be roasted without a navy, so he wanted to oppose the British without officially declaring war • The French wondered if they should turn their main enemy to Austria (away from Britain) and gain profit, like Prussia • A young prince argued that it was better for France to benefit from exploiting Austria than fighting with the Brits • In doing so, Lorraine would never go back to the Austrians • They would have control in the Germanic lands • Hapsburgs were always a major enemy, and teaming up with the others (Prussia, etc) would put them in their place, and the French could stay behind the curtains • June 1741: France signed an agreement with Spain, Savoy, Prussia, Saxony, and in 1741: Bavaria • France did not declare war on Austria until 1745 • Austria stood no chance, whatsoever • 1742: Austria’s fate seemed to be sealed, but Maria Teresa survived because she offered concessions (rights) to her own Hungarian subjects, so they identified her as Queen of Hungary – elevating her political/diplomatic status • The Hungarians offered a small army of about 20/25,000 (they weren’t that good, or trained, but they were something) • This helped her manage to delay her ultimate defeat • The Brits had pretty much stayed out of it until this point, but that can carry you only so far • Now, they realized their absence from the continent did not bode well for the security of Hanover, and would have meant the end of balance of power • New foreign minister in England, decides to restore the Grand Alliance • 1742: Charles Arber was elected as a HRE (French gain) – someone said that even under Louis xiv the French hadn’t had this much power • So, the British offered Maria Teresa economic support, but only if she made up with her cousin, Frederick the Great, and accepts the loss of Silesia because Austria was on the verge of collapse, and needed British support • Austria & Prussia end up signing an agreement that recognizes Prussia as the owner of Silesia • Frederick pulls out of the war – leaving Savoy, Saxons, French, and Bavarians on their own • Maria Teresa raised an army with British support – pushing out the invaders, into French land • This allowed the British to secure Hanover, and the Austrian victory, and allowed the British to wage war with the French overseas because they were so focused on the war here • 1744: Frederick returned to the war, and launched a major offensive against Austria (feared she’d gain strength, and demand Silesia again) • French were initially outraged that Prussia had left, but were happy they returned • British again forced the hand of Maria Teresa – making her settle with the fact that Silesia could never been returned • Only at this point did they finance the war again • Pretty much the Canadian land that was under French control was taken by the British • French was doing so well in Europe, and England so well in NA that their advantages negated each other • Same thing happened in Spain • French were informed that if they did not reach an agreement soon, they would become bankrupt – same thing for England • France & Britain sought a settlement to ensure that they would not collapse: 1748, Treaty of a-la-chapelle • Britain returned stolen lands in Canada • French bounced from the Netherlands • Allowed Dutch to regain their fortresses • Spaniards gain territories in Italy • Savoy received no compensation • Maria Teresa was forced by the British to accept the treaty, and give up Silesia • Prussia had the greatest gain – all states agreed they deserved it • Prussia’s status was elevated, and at this point was considered a great power • Maria Teresa was still pissed, which created more conflict October 26 , 2011 • By the time the war was over, Russia had settled their domestic situation, and had never played a role in the war • Despite this, everyone was aware of Russia and its power • Maria Teresa never accepted the Treaty of a-la-chapelle because she could never come to terms with losing Silesia • Realized that neither France, nor Spain were her major opponents • Her greatest threat was Prussia, and her cousin, Frederick • Further realized that Britain could no longer be counted on as the greatest ally (twice did they force Austria to do something that directly contradicted their interests) • Benzel Kaunitz was MT’s advisor • He told MT that the Austrian Netherlands weren’t really an asset to the Hapsburg Empire, rather a drain on Austria • Economically, it was never incorporated into the Hapsburg Empire • Could never exploit its resources • In short, they didn’t need it • The Austrian Netherlands were tied to the Dutch Republic – all trade had to pass through them; benefiting them way more • Turned out to be a liability • How to solve a dilemma like that? We have a new enemy; this territory constantly brings them into conflict with France, so they wanted to get rid of the territory • Who has been coveting that land for the longest time? France • Kaunitz suggested that MT give the land to the French – yielding tremendous reward (show of diplomacy, as opposed to force) • This would free up Austrian resources, relieve Austrian concerns, and break the French-Prussian alliance – leaving Prussia without a continental ally, making them way easier for the Austrians to deal with (isolated) • Maria Teresa agreed to Kaunitz’s proposal beginning: • 1756: Diplomatic Revolution • Kaunitz’s task was now to convince Louis 15 to accept this proposal Meanwhile, in North America: • Conflict looming between Britain and France • 60,000 French settlers (approx) • Preventing the possibility of a million and a half British settlers to expand their colonies, which was unacceptable to them leading to a real war in the new world • Early 1750s: shipped over several thousands British troops to challenge the French • French needed to secure their people in the New World without engaging in conflict in Europe • And then, here comes the Austrian proposal • Louis 15 was fond of secret negotiations, and the Austrians wouldn’t dare make their proposals public • Maria Teresa was buddies with Louis’ wife, which made her accept the Austrian proposal, and urged Louis to do the same • Louis, however, still did not accept the proposal just yet • What made him change his mind? • The conflict brewing with the British overseas, which made them need stability in Europe • Britain, however, was conflicted because they needed to secure Hanover which was right in the centre of Europe before they could start anything with France in the New World • How would they go about this? Helllloooooo Russia • Russia had never participated in Western politics until this time • Russia was very poor at this time, so the British offered financial assistance in return for safeguarding Hanover • When Frederick took Silesia, he jeopardized Russian interests – cutting off their trade, which angered Russian Tsar, Elizabeth – making her hellbent on punishing Prussia • Naturally, the Russians were willing to negotiate with Britain • The agreement was that the British would pay 100,000 pounds a year, and the Russians would have no less than 50,000 troops in Hanover – creating a threat for Prussians • Russia was Prussia’s only threat • So, Frederick feared for the future of Prussia • Elizabeth demanded ridiculous amounts of cash, which was unacceptable to the British, so how would they get over this? • British chancellor traveled to Prussia to show them the agreement with Russia, saying that Britain and Prussia should sign an agreement of neutrality, or the British would sign with Russia • But, Prussia was a French ally, which was clearly a problem – lying to the French about any negotiations • Frederick was forced to sign the British treaty (of Westminster) – agreeing to keep Hanover safe, but ONLY Hanover – leaving every other place in Europe open to French aggression • This was his attempt at maintaining French friendship • But, Louis found out, and was PISSED. (Betrayal, etc) • THIS is what makes Louis look at the Austrian offer • He signs it, and the entire diplomatic alignment of Europe is turned upside down • This terminated a conflict that had been going on for over 2 centuries • Destroyed the Bourbon/Hapsburg conflict • Grand Alliance was broken • Austria was no longer a British ally • Austria was able to pursue their own ventures (i.e. recapturing Silesia) • Furthermore, the Turks would no longer threaten th Austrian border because they needed French support • Spain would no longer challenge Austria in Italy, because they, too, needed French support • Agreed to consult each other about anything that happened (looming wars, peace treaties, etc) • They agreed to a dynastic union • Both are very happy French rationale: • What fool would dare attack the great powers of France and Austria? • French now had a hand to deal with the British in the New World st October 31 , 2011 • Diplomatic revolution; realignment of international relations • Bourbon House & Hapsburg House 1756: 2 major powers terminated hostilities • Louis thought that his alliance would never be challenged – they were the 3 Greatest Powers • Austria wanted a war with Prussia (still mad about Silesia) but did not want to start the war – they wanted to be the victims, and once attacked, recapture Silesia • May 1 1756: First Treaty of Versailles signed, Frederick began receiving steady stream of spy reports – warned him of an alliance with the sole objective of knocking Prussia off the map from 3 places • Frederick made several inquiries to MT about whether they were planning to attack Prussia, MT denied these rumors, but Frederick became increasingly suspicious • Frederick began preparing his armies, and could not find any diplomatic end to his issues – he had burned those bridges (Louis deemed him a backstabber) • He decided to tackle this anti-Prussian alliance one by one – choosing Saxony first (weakest link): - Had to deal with Saxony before he cold attack Austria, cause otherwise they’d be on his back - Saxony was close to Berlin - Wanted to gain evidence of this anti-Prussian coalition • August 29 1756: Frederick executed a preemptive strike – the longer he didn’t do anything, the more strength this coalition could gain • Saxony was overrun within a month: great military success • Saxony was integrated into Prussia, treasury taken by Frederick, Saxon army integrated with Prussian army • This treasury was 1/3 of his total expenditure • This attack, however, became an unmitigated diplomatic disaster • This attack made the coalition stronger • The entire continent was now against Frederick – he was seen as the aggressor, or “evil-doer” • Militarily, it made sense to attack Saxony – but that isn’t the only important thing to consider • The attack on Saxony created exactly the situation he wanted to avoid • Tsar Elizabeth had been wanting to attack Prussia for time for personal reasons, and Prussia had the potential to cut Russian trade • But, Elizabeth didn’t have the money, and was hoping to get Britain aid to wage war on Prussia • Plus, Britain and Prussia had made up • So, Tsar Elizabeth fired the foreign minister who was negotiating with Britain, and hired another who was wildly anti-Prussian • He wanted to destroy Prussia through French, not British aid • Russia wanted to destroy Prussia; turning it into a meaningless state • Meanwhile in France, they were pissed that Prussia had signed the secret treaty • Louis’ son was married to a Saxon princess, which turned Louis completely against Frederick • Louis advised the Austrians to revise the first Treaty of Versailles and turn it into a defensive alliance – the French would offer 1 million pounds, and their entire military strength to defeat Prussia • The French didn’t even ask for anything in return – they basically just wanted to squash Prussia • It was a major diplomatic blunder for Frederick • As far as the HRE was concerned, Frederick was a troublemaker, and declared war of Prussia • Prussia was completely isolated, save thei
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