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27 HIS103Y Lecture Jan 18th.doc

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University of Toronto St. George
Vasilis Dimitriadis

HIS103Y Lecture 27 January 18th. Napoleon III and the Wars of Italian Unification • French war aims – split Quadruple Alliance, military victory justifying war by capture of Sebastopol, Austro-Anglo-Russian tri-parted breaking up – ready for peace Buol-Bourqueney agreement • The one opposition to peace was Palmerston, who demanded more territorial concession • Neutral Black Sea – Russian naval reserve broken, but Palmerston also argued that the Sea of Azov and Russian rivers should become neutral • Russia must concede territory in concession to uphold Ottoman Empire as strong state (Georgia and Circassia must be detached from Russia) • However Clarendon (GB) found that it had no support for these demands GB would have fought on, but army was decimated by diseases and fatigue • Napoleon III was then in charge to dictate the terms of the peace • Congress of Paris, February 1856 to March Treaty of Paris • Benedetti (France) – treaty was equal and fair to all regardless of victor or loser • This was because Napoleon didn’t want to isolate Russia • Russia also had won a major victory at Kars against the Ottomans (Kars was the Verdun of Turkey) in the last weeks of the war • This allowed Russia to trade Kars to retain Bessarabia, a territory north of the Danubian • British proposal to neutralize Sea of Azov also undone, effectively allowing Russians to enter the Black Sea at will • Great Britain felt it hadn’t achieved its goals, Napoleon was successful, Russia was to, but Austria was the major loser of the Crimean conflict • In April 1856 Austria, GB, and France signed a defensive alliance to protect the Treaty of Paris • Austria was very isolated post Crimean. Austria was under pressure from both East and West to evacuate Danubian Principalities – they had annoyed everyone • Austria had been able to put out nationalistic rebellions pre-Crimean due to Russian troops. • Now Russia was no longer committed to putting out liberal rebellions • So now Italy and Germany had freedom to work on their national unification • Napoleon recognized this and saw the need to adjust the international system to this growing power. Didn’t have a proper mechanism to do this • January 14 1858 – Napoleon nearly assassinated by Orsini, Italian patriot, begins to actively work on the problem • July 1858 Napoleon meets Cavour at Plombieres plotted a war against Austria • France and Piedmont-Sardinia fight against Lombardy and Vienna (Austria) and France would get Nice and Savoy • Only possible if Russia sanctioned action to discourage Prussian intervention. In March 1859 Alexander II agreed to remain neutral • Two weeks later Alexander proposes an international conference to discuss Austrian influence in Italy • This was good for France since it needed to justify its actions, ‘what is it that I want, that Austria leave the congress isolated.’ • Napoleon painted Austria to look like they were oppressors at the congress to try and justify the war • Buol felt the congress would isolate Russia and demanded that Piedmont-Sardinia completely disarmed • Now Napoleon and Cavour could go to war with European consent • At Magenta and Solferino in June Austria defeated, so Lombardy was under control, but then Napoleon broke pact of Plombieres by signing a armistice at Villafranca with Austrians, became a peace at Zurich in the next year without consulting Piedmont-Sardinia • Napoleon did so, because he did not want to be, ‘the leader of the scum of Europe.’ • Naples in the South, Papal States, Piedmont-Sardinia and a Northern Federation – this would make Italy always reliant on France • However as France ran through Lombardy revolts in Parma, Modena, Papal States, and Tuscany announced support for a unified Italy under Piedmont- Sardinia • So Napoleon tried to stop the process • May 1860 Garibaldi led 8000 red shirts to invade Sicily and Naples and defeated them • So Napoleon allowed Cavour to occupy papal states but then Garibaldi instead of fighting against Piedmont-Sardinia for control of Italy he hands over his winnings to Victor Emanuel • Handshake at Teano – 1861 the Kingdom of Italy Ver2. - Napoleon III had an uncanny ability to bring about the great powers into a collision without displaying France as the instigator. - Thus lead to the breakdown of the Holy Alliance – as well as the Quadruple Alliance. - After the Napoleonic War and the Congress century – Napoleon gained a free hand to establish a territorial establishment much like the Congress of Vienna. - Napoleon III thought that France deserved the natural frontiers – low countries, Rhinelands, Northern Italy etc. - Wanted to make France the diplomatic arbitrator of Europe. - He wanted to improve France’s position and encourage territorial expansion. - Quadruple Alliance, Holy Alliance destroyed – Russia destroyed due to the Crimean War. - Britain and France allied – France had the ability to reach her diplomatic poweress. - Spring of 1856: An opportunity to regain their prior international position. - France – unprecedented loss of territories and international position despite th
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