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26 HIS103Y Lecture Jan 16th.doc

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Vasilis Dimitriadis

HIS103Y Lecture 26 January 16th. The Crimean War and Peace • By 1840 fractures were appearing in the international system • The Eastern Question became an excuse for the powers to go to war • France: which Christian church would take over holy places o Latin vs. Orthodox churches backed by France and Russia respectively who would gain the power to influence Ottomans – this seemed insignificant to the Greek and Straits crisis • Whenever Paris sneezes, Europe catches cold. o Ex) French Revolution affected the whole continent’s state system • French established true republic o “The Republic does not recognize the Congress of Vienna” o But accept the territorial settlement • Vienna (Capital of Habsburg Empire) and Berlin experienced revolutions as well. o Jan 1849, Hungary declared independence by defeating Austrians.  They wanted constitutional monarchy like Britain. o Austrians established Holy Alliance with Prussia to crush all the revolution.  Recognized Prussia as the only great power in the Northern Germany. o Russia offered help to Habsburgs because they worried that Habs would collapse.  If Hungary succeeds, Poland under Russia would also rise up.  => August 1849, Russian defeated Hungarians and Russian power increased. • Consequences of the Revolution of 1849 o Russia gain power in Central Europe o Austria and Germany dependent on Russia o British saw the balance of power shift towards Russia, which made them alarmed • Napoleon III, no military genius, sought to bring back France to international prestige, improve France’s role in the international order. Also felt threatened by Quadruple Alliance, so aimed to exploit British fear of Russia to improve France’s security • By bring up holy places, thought Nicholas I would over react and consolidate British fears and make British detach from Quadruple Alliance and join France • Drouyn De Lhuys French foreign minister on the real purpose of the Crimean War, ‘The question of the holy places was of no importance whatsoever to France, all that Eastern Question was nothing more then dislocating the continental alliance, this continental alliance has paralyzed France for nearly half a century.’ • Crimean war was a means to the end of the removing the stranglehold on France • Great objective of the war to separate Austro-Russian connections and gain for France its liberty of action abroad • December 1852 agreed to French demand of Latin Church gaining supremacy of the holy places • Nicholas I wanted to intervene militarily, but Nesselrode saw to the hearts of Napoleons plan • Sent Menshikov to Turkish court to demand return to status quo • Nicholas I made diplomatic mistake and told Great Britain diplomat his real intentions. This strengthened anti-Russian sentiment in Great Britain parliament • Palmerston, sent to Turkish court creates anti-Russian sentiment and pro-French and aimed for war rather then peace • Thwarted all Russian attempts at diplomacy. This forced Russia to issue an ultimatum to Ottomans, if equality of the holy places not returned than occupy Moldavia and Wallachia • Ottomans refused and in May 1853 Russia invades • Austria under Boul tries to make peace, because if sided with Russia estranged by Great Britain and France Austria would be natural battle ground, if sided with Great Britain and France, Russia would be angered • Austria did become the loser of Crimean War • Vienna note July 1853 called upon Turkish empire to restore equality of treatment and if to make any change he should consult Russia and France before • Nesselrode dispatch to Russian embodies in great powers in September 1853 rejecting amendments made to Vienna note, called inquisition Russia right to defend orthodox in Turkey • War boiled down to the interpretations of French word ‘Veiller’ to watch over – Russia Orthodox Christians in Ottoman Empire • Great Britain and France thought this in effect meant that the Russians were aiming to satellite Ottoman Empire. They had already decided thi
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