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HIS103Y Lecture 30 January 30th

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Vasilis Dimitriadis

HIS103Y Lecture 30 January 30th. Bismarck and the States System, 1880-90 • Bismarck aims to be one in three out of five great powers – security in numbers difficult because of – French revolutionist o Austro-Russian rivalry over Eastern Question • How to maintain friendship between Austria and Russia – dilemma for Bismarck because if Europe descended into war over Eastern Question than Germany would be battleground in Central Europe and Austria would collapse – Grossdeutsch • January 1877 ‘survival of Austria-Hungary was a necessity of the first order for the German Empire.’ • Powers cooperate if East Rumelia revolts again and dealt with in a way that would be acceptable for Russia and Austria • 18 September 1885 Rumelia revolts and drive out Ottomans, want to ally with Bulgaria. To prove he wasn’t a Russian pawn • Alexander of Battenberg, king of Bulgaria, forges on an independent path • This outrages Russia, who begins a more forceful policy • 30 November 1866 Kalnoky, Austria, any Russian occupation of Bulgaria would be impermissible and in violation of international law and treaties • Russian ambassador in Berlin, ‘make Austria disappear off the map.’ • This put Bismarck in a severe dilemma – commits to survival of Austria • Bismarck to his son, ‘can’t let Austria go under, we will achieve that goal by supporting Russian’s goal to satellite Bulgaria.’ • How did Bismarck do this – get other to do his dirty work • Bismarck public statements in favour of Russia, put pressure on British • February 1874 Britain and Italy sign 1 Mediterranean agreement conservative document: unite foreign policies in favour of status quo in Mediterranean Austria and Spain join as well • Bismarck having shored up Austria, assured Russia it wasn’t isolated • Reinsurance Treaty June 1887 – Germain reinsurance of Russian strategic interest: o Maintaining benevolent neutrality towards each other if one come to blows with another great powers however not applicable on a war between Austria and Russia, if Russia attacked Austria, or a war between France and Germany, if
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