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HIS103Y Lecture 28 January 23rd. The Wars of German Unification

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University of Toronto St. George
Vasilis Dimitriadis

HIS103Y Lecture 28 January 23rd. The Wars of German Unification • Napoleon III – reduce Austrian influence in Italy/ reconstituted map of Italy – easily dominated by France • France becomes leading authority in Europe • Tried more multilateral approach to further nationalities question • Something must be done to quench nationalistic thirst to prevent revolutions o Poland,thenetia; Rome, Danubian principalities, Schleswig-Holstein • November 4 1863 Napoleon III proposed international congress to solve Questions • Russia did not want Poland discussed, Austrians did not want Venetia to be discussed th • Great Britain decision would decide other nation’s reactions. 19 November 1863 Great Britain cabinet rejects proposal • Palmerston, ‘such a meeting could only tend to bring out in bolder reliefs all those differences of opinion and conflicts of interest which are at present kept in the background.’ Congress would threaten balance of power • These divides between great powers would be exploited by Otto von Bismarck • Wilhelm I regarded Bismarck as to radical a reactionary, and anti-nationalist • However Bismarck recognized power of German nationalism and should be harnessed for Prussian interests – ‘If there are to be a revolution we would rather make it then suffer it.’ • Announced his policy to liberal von Unruh, ‘the only reliable, lasting ally that Prussia can have is the German people.’ • In 1862 Wilhelm tries for more military expenditure, but turned down by Landtag, Bismarck advices Wilhelm and becomes chancellor • Vienna settlement does not favour Prussia’s political existence – Prussia’s territory to scattered thus needs to be consolidated by ‘blood and iron.’ • Establish Prussian control North of the Main • ‘Politics is not an exact and logical science, but it is t
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