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Lecture

HIS103Y Lecture 29 January 25th. Bismarck and the States System, 1871-79.

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Department
History
Course
HIS103Y1
Professor
Vasilis Dimitriadis
Semester
Winter

Description
HIS103Y Lecture 29 January 25th. Bismarck and the States System, 1871-79. • Bismarck; solid territorial foundation to ensure Prussia’s status as a great power • After Prague – German Confederation goes from 39 to far less states – Bismarck had what he wanted and didn’t want to pursue Southern states, because it would arouse France and Russia • France recognized it had been out manoeuvred numerically by Prussia, and realized that at Sadowa France had been defeated • Napoleon III tried to right his wrongs in Italy and strengthening Prussia • Proposed France extend across Rhine and absorb Belgium, Bismarck refuses but encourages Napoleon to target Luxembourg • Napoleon tries to buy Luxembourg (German ethnicities) explodes German nationalism • Prussia vetoes French attempts and persuades Bismarck to do something about the Southern German states • 1870 Hohenzollern candidate for the Spanish throne – a German candidate would strengthen Spain through family ties – Bismarck signs onto deal because French would be surrounded by two Hohenzollern monarchies • Bismarck by March 1870 Savo Franco-Prussian war as inevitable and aimed for the absorption of Southern German states – causes for this o Appointment of Duc de Gremont as foreign minister ( thought France deserved territorial compensation for Prussian gains) o Bismarck tries to test the new French regime – Hohenzollern candidacy French hear of this, force Napoleon III to demand Prussia to withdraw Hohenzollern candidacy • 12 July 1870 Hohenzollern candidate withdraws claim – major blow for Bismarck however incompetence of de Gramont handed Bismarck a second chance • Duc de Gramont approaches Wilhelm I and demands him to never renew candidature rubbing salts in Prussian wounds. Wilhelm I refuses offer, Due de Gramont demands an apology, rejects demands again. Sends Ems Telegram to Bismarck. Bismarck publishes Ems telegram but edits the version, and publishes it on Bastille Day in France, France swept into war fury • Southern states obligated to stand by Northern German confederation by defensive alliance. Bismarck convinced Prussia could defeat an isolated France • Isolates France by publishing French reports of acquiring Belgium – Great Britain out Russia not willing to aid France, since Crimean War and Prusso-Russian alliance to mobilize to neutralize Austria if Prussia fought France • Prussian victory at Sedan December 1870 – Napoleon III captured – regime collapses • Trial French Republic – refused to make peace – for several months • May 1871 – Treaty of Frankfurt • January 1871 Hall of Mirrors at Versailles – German empire declared • How would Bismarck uphold this central European state with other states envious and stuck between Russia and France? • Three emperors league o In case of major international differences, powers should consult one another o Maintenance of monarchical regimes and policies • Solved Austrian fears, who thought Russia and Germany would team up against it and secured majority of great powers on his side • Diffused Austro-Russian rivalry in Balkans – Bismarck as mediator and arbiter but this arrangement was too loose – the ‘war in sight’ crisis – German alarm at French recovery – enlargement of French army th • 8 April 1875 – Berlin newspaper – Is war in sight – escalates pressure on France • Russia rallies to
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