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HIS103Y Lecture 24 December 5th. The Triumph of the Allies: From Leipzig to Waterloo

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University of Toronto St. George
Vasilis Dimitriadis

HIS103Y Lecture 24 December 5th. The Triumph of the Allies: From Leipzig to Waterloo • Even though Napoleon’s Russian campaign failed nothing was set in stone – Napoleon still remained a powerful enemy • Europe had never acted collectively and Austria and Prussia fought on the French side • Klausewitz (Prussian who went o Russian side) convinced general von Yorck, who guarded French retreat from Russia, to join the anti-French coalition • This was difficult because Yorck was a royalist and conformist, but knew that for Prussian royalty to regain loyalty of the people he said to Klausewitz, ‘You’ll have me killed’ • The beginning of the Germain nationalism begins with Yorck’s decision against Frederick William III will to fight for German liberation and freedom • Austria’s decision to join the coalition was a complex one since Austria was closes to France, Marie-Louise was married to Napoleon • Dynastic union between the Bonaparte’s and Hapsburgs • Metternich realized that French domination could not be replaced with Russian domination – use France to dominate Russia • Castlereagh accepted in January 1814 to Metternich policy to use Napoleon as a check • Metternich turned down French command to go up against them in arms. Policy of Armed Neutrality • Prague Congress – is there a way out of this confrontation • Metternich meet with Napoleon face to face at Dresden • Napoleon offered Austria ransom to remain neutral • Metternich was no impressed since the French army was made up of young men and veteran troops • At the same time Wellington broke through in Spain • July 1813, Reichenbach convention, Austria to join the Allies if French turned down terms of Prague congress, keep Belgium, give away Confederation of the Rhine and Duchy of Warsaw • Napoleon obsessed with warfare rejected the offer • Austria joins allies 1813 – all of Europe stands collectively against France • The strength of France was in the ultimate command of Napoleon • How would allies develop a collective military strategy • The Northern Army – Russia, Prussia and Sweden – Swedish commander • B
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