HIS103Y Lecture 13 October 31st
The Diplomatic Revolution
• Prussia had the best trained solders in all of Europe – this one factor all European
diplomats had to take into account
• Another was the rise of Russian power as Russia was able to settle their domestic
succession by 1714.
• 1746-1747 the war of Austrian Succession was at an end (Aix-la-Chapelle)
o Maria only gave up Silesia at Aix-la-Chapelle
o Though she signed the treaty, she was humiliated.
o The main threat and enemy to Austria was Prussia.
o This will lead to further problems in Europe.
• The British were successful in North America, but they realized that the conflict
on continental Europe was important for the colonial conflict
o North America would be won in Europe
• Austria realized that the British didn’t care about Hapsburg’s objectives
• Kaunitz of Austria has to take on her own objectives not rely on others
• The entire conflict between Austria and France was because of the Austrian
Netherlands. So the Austrian Netherlands was a liability to Austria rather then an
actual gain. Could not defend it militarily and economically did not yield a profit.
However we can do something about this. Offer the Austrian Netherlands to
France to receive France’s neutrality. This agreement would help settle the matter
of the Netherlands and thus would put France on the Austrian side of future
conflicts against Prussia. This was the reason for the diplomatic revolution
• To achieve this goal Austria would have to appeal to Louis XIV through secret
diplomatic talks and also through negotiations with Madame De Pompadour
(Maria Theresa’s BFF) to help influence Louis XIV
• To sum up, Kaunitz “give it up” their outside land – Austrian Netherlands, Holy
Roman Empire, and German States – to France.
o To eliminate Habsbrugs vs. Bourbon conflict.
o To alleviate Austrian concerns
o To save Austrian resources
o To break French-Prussian alliance.
• The French did not want to accept the terms of the new alliance with Austria since
their has been a long anti-Austrian feeling in France
• However this was achieved in part by the British, because the British wanted
• The British realized that an eventual war with France would break out and the
British wanted Hannover protected so that the British could send their troops over
to North America to help take control over French provinces that were inhibiting
English colonial growth
• The British realized that the Austrians would no longer fight for the British so
they looked to Russia and Prussia for military protection • Russia wanted to attack Prussia but didn’t have the financial mean in which to
fight the Prussians, so this gave the British an opportunity to offer a deal to Russia
in the Anglo-Russian Subsidy Treaty
• Newcastle wanted Russia with British subsidies to hold East Prussia hostage, so
as to protect Hannover. Russia accepted th