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Lecture 10

HIS103Y Lecture 10 October 19th The War of the Spanish Succession: Part III: The Peace of Utrecht-Rastadt

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Vasilis Dimitriadis

HIS103Y Lecture 10 October 19th The War of the Spanish Succession: Part III: The Peace of Utrecht-Rastadt • Three Major Battles: Ramielles, Turin, and Blenheim • Marlborough (Churchill) demanded fast-paced war for Britain’s supremacy. • 1707 – England became United Kingdom • Dutch’s security was not primary concern for British. o Dutch had to give up its navy. • Britain, with their possession of Gibraltar and dominant navy, brought Austrian Archduke Charles to take Spain. • The Allies now wanted to put Charles III of Austria on the Spanish throne • Joseph I of the Holy Roman Empire agreed with Marlborough on “No peace without Spain” o Joseph I was better than his father (Leopold) in diplomacy • 11 July 1708 France tries to recapture the Spanish Netherlands at Oudenarde, but allies route French forces o Louis appointed its officers who had no military experience. • This was followed by an economic drought in France due to a terrible harvest • Even though France was on the brink of capitulation, the Allies still made radical demands: o To occupy a series of French towns o French support to join the alliance against Philip V • These and other demands drove Louis to keep up the war and fight for its own survival against Habsburg dominance • France approached to the Dutch first in 1709 o Dutch asked Philip to renounce Spain and Louis to renounce French fortresses to the Dutch o Britain thought they should gain something and France should give up Asiento. o The only article Louis didn’t accept: “France should turn their army to Spain if Philip didn’t give up his Spanish throne. o “If I should wage war, I would wage on my enemies, not my Grandson.” said Louis XIV. • Fortunately, France had a brilliant commander, the Duke of Villars • 11 September 1709 at Malplaquet- Villars faced the bigger army of Marlborough and Eugene of Savoy • During the French counter-attack, Villars was struck by a cannon ball and his lieutenants messed it up. So technically the Allies won, but it was a poor victory • Villars, “If god gives us the grace to lose another such battle, your majesty can count on his enemies being destroyed’ to Louis XIV • Consequences of Malplaquet: the loss of the Dutch infantry forces – the Dutch is no longer a great power • The leadership of Marlborough was broken, it broke the militaristic approach • The diplomacy of weakness – the Dutch used their weakness to gain concessions from the British – 29 October 1709 Townshend treaty of succession and barrier • The Dutch would up hold the Protestant Succession in England, if they enjoyed the same commercial benefits in a future peace treaty, and were allowed to man the barrier fortresses in the Southern Netherlands • The only problem with this treaty was that this was only a deal with the kings, who soon lost their power in Parl
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