HIS103Y Lecture 10 October 19th
The War of the Spanish Succession: Part III:
The Peace of Utrecht-Rastadt
• Three Major Battles: Ramielles, Turin, and Blenheim
• Marlborough (Churchill) demanded fast-paced war for Britain’s supremacy.
• 1707 – England became United Kingdom
• Dutch’s security was not primary concern for British.
o Dutch had to give up its navy.
• Britain, with their possession of Gibraltar and dominant navy, brought Austrian
Archduke Charles to take Spain.
• The Allies now wanted to put Charles III of Austria on the Spanish throne
• Joseph I of the Holy Roman Empire agreed with Marlborough on “No peace
o Joseph I was better than his father (Leopold) in diplomacy
• 11 July 1708 France tries to recapture the Spanish Netherlands at Oudenarde, but
allies route French forces
o Louis appointed its officers who had no military experience.
• This was followed by an economic drought in France due to a terrible harvest
• Even though France was on the brink of capitulation, the Allies still made radical
o To occupy a series of French towns
o French support to join the alliance against Philip V
• These and other demands drove Louis to keep up the war and fight for its own
survival against Habsburg dominance
• France approached to the Dutch first in 1709
o Dutch asked Philip to renounce Spain and Louis to renounce French
fortresses to the Dutch
o Britain thought they should gain something and France should give up
o The only article Louis didn’t accept: “France should turn their army to
Spain if Philip didn’t give up his Spanish throne.
o “If I should wage war, I would wage on my enemies, not my Grandson.”
said Louis XIV.
• Fortunately, France had a brilliant commander, the Duke of Villars
• 11 September 1709 at Malplaquet- Villars faced the bigger army of Marlborough
and Eugene of Savoy
• During the French counter-attack, Villars was struck by a cannon ball and his
lieutenants messed it up. So technically the Allies won, but it was a poor victory
• Villars, “If god gives us the grace to lose another such battle, your majesty can
count on his enemies being destroyed’ to Louis XIV
• Consequences of Malplaquet: the loss of the Dutch infantry forces – the Dutch is
no longer a great power
• The leadership of Marlborough was broken, it broke the militaristic approach • The diplomacy of weakness – the Dutch used their weakness to gain concessions
from the British – 29 October 1709 Townshend treaty of succession and barrier
• The Dutch would up hold the Protestant Succession in England, if they enjoyed
the same commercial benefits in a future peace treaty, and were allowed to man
the barrier fortresses in the Southern Netherlands
• The only problem with this treaty was that this was only a deal with the kings,
who soon lost their power in Parl