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Lecture 6

HIS103Y Lecture 6 October 3rd The Nine Years War, 1688-1697

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University of Toronto St. George
Vasilis Dimitriadis

HIS103Y Lecture 6 October 3rd The Nine Years War, 1688-1697 • September 25 1688 French troops attacked Philippsburg, which was in reality a defensive move by Louis in order to complete the French defensive line on the border • This ignited the Nine Years War 1688-1697 o Modern war techniques o French foreign strategy was reoriented o Beginning of conflicts btw France and Britain o State’s economic stability was decisive • October 1688 Philipsburg (The last remaining gate of the Rhine) fell to the French • Philippsburg was a major political error because Louis underestimated the power and speed which the other European nations would react to his move • Magdeburg Concert October 15 1688 • Brandenburg (Frederick III) Saxony (John George) Brunswick-Luneburg (Ernst August) created a coalition to show a united front against France • German forces were then reinforced by the forces of Max Emmanuel(Bavaria) • December 11 1688 a German decree formally declared France the official enemy of Germany o The start of the Franco-German war • The French were taken by complete surprise to the rapid deployment of German forces and to a united force as well • The French tried to consolidate their own loses by fortifying their defences along the Rhine river o Winter 1688-1689 Palatinate  Palatinate is a major city in which German forces could lunch an attack into France o The French decided the only way to prevent such a move is to burn Palatinate to the ground o French tried to destroy possible German cities where an attack could be launched from into France so it was almost impossible for German forces to have a possible staging ground for their own troops to make an effective push into France  Louis defensive stance was his final mistake which left many German town completely destroyed as well as further angering the rest of Europe • November 15 1688 England’s Glorious Revolution o William III (former William Orange) invaded England after being invited by the protestant English  William III was to try and overthrow James II (Catholic) o William III had a claim to the English thrown as he was married to James II daughter Mary o To stop Catholic dynasty in England, they had to rely on the orange even though he was Dutch, commercial rival of England. • May 12 1689 Dutch and Austria made an alliance to challenge France and push back its borders o December 1689 England joined the anti-French coalition => The Grand Alliance o June 1690 Spain joined the anti-French coalition o Alliance members had to at minimum put all their available resources into their own war effort o The Alliance also made sure that no member was allowed to seek a separate peace from France and that if a peace should be reach it would be done collectively as an Alliance • The 9 year war marked the Rise of Great powers Dutch, Austria, and England o None of the other great power could take on France alone but together they had a change o The combined strength of the other Great powers lead to a stalemate with France which lasted 8 years • France once again convinced the Ottoman Turks to attack Austria again to help divided their war effort o The Austrians had a standing army of 50,000 troops o The Austrians also fielded the best Calvary in Europe at the time • Dutch army consisted of 60, 000 infantry, 11,000 cavalry, 11,000 dragoons o The weakness in the Dutch war effort was the weak bond between the military leadership and the civilian leadership • Spain was in a decline and was really unable to hold their own against French forces • The 9 Years War marked the birth of British Power o Britain was sophisticated in its financial institutions (economic structure) o 1694 Bank of England created o William Paterson “nations now find, how money commands all things, particularly the sword and nations have reason to know the wars of these times, are rather to be waged with money then iron.” o 1693 England was first to create a National Debt o National Capital Market – to allow the government to borrow money to lessen future taxes and give interest to those who gave them money o Constitutional Monarchy gave legal limits on the Monarchy  Consti
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