HIS103Y Lecture 2 September 19 th
The Legacy of the Thirty Years War and The Peace of Westphalia
• October 24 , 1648 – Peace of Westphalia = Watershed of International Relations
o The Treaty of Münster (Catholics)
o The Treaty of Osnabrück (Protestants)
• Peace of Pyrenees – Franco – Spanish conflict ended
• Westphalia – creates the international order
o Set standards for post war conference. Every major peace treaty have to be
signed in wars. (except Korean War)
o Legitimizes state as the wager of war
o The borders that the nations agreed still existed till 19 century.
o Creates a balance of power/sets frontiers and borders (creates stability)
o Permanent embassies established
o Set gives sovereignty to the state
• Sovereignty of state was especially important to German states who broke away
from the sovereignty of the Holy Roman Empire.
• Martin Luther King’s Reformation 1570
o Questioned indulgence (ticket to heaven), role of pope and Rome
o Established protestant movement.
=> Holy Roman (Habsburg) outraged and wanted to wipe out all
Protestants from German lands.
• Defeat of the Hapsburg hegemony
o Hapsburg had been competing for a continent-wide imperial system
• Secularisation of International Relations
o Religion was no longer a factor in International Relations
• Cardinal Richelieu led France (Catholic) onto the side of the Protestants
o It is necessary to have a policy to halt the progress of Spain and Austria
o This was the first case of secular logic – Raison d’état’ (English: R