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Lecture 2

HIS103Y Lecture 2 September 19th The Legacy of the Thirty Years War and The Peace of Westphalia

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Vasilis Dimitriadis

HIS103Y Lecture 2 September 19 th The Legacy of the Thirty Years War and The Peace of Westphalia th • October 24 , 1648 – Peace of Westphalia = Watershed of International Relations o The Treaty of Münster (Catholics) o The Treaty of Osnabrück (Protestants) • Peace of Pyrenees – Franco – Spanish conflict ended • Westphalia – creates the international order o Set standards for post war conference. Every major peace treaty have to be signed in wars. (except Korean War) o Legitimizes state as the wager of war th o The borders that the nations agreed still existed till 19 century. o Creates a balance of power/sets frontiers and borders (creates stability) o Permanent embassies established o Set gives sovereignty to the state • Sovereignty of state was especially important to German states who broke away from the sovereignty of the Holy Roman Empire. • Martin Luther King’s Reformation 1570 o Questioned indulgence (ticket to heaven), role of pope and Rome o Established protestant movement. => Holy Roman (Habsburg) outraged and wanted to wipe out all Protestants from German lands. • Defeat of the Hapsburg hegemony o Hapsburg had been competing for a continent-wide imperial system • Secularisation of International Relations o Religion was no longer a factor in International Relations • Cardinal Richelieu led France (Catholic) onto the side of the Protestants o It is necessary to have a policy to halt the progress of Spain and Austria o This was the first case of secular logic – Raison d’état’ (English: R
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