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Congress of Vienna, Castleraegh and Metternich, Crimean War

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University of Toronto St. George
Denis Smyth

6) Congress of Vienna, Castlereagh and Metternich, Crimean War The Congress of Vienna and Congress System January 7 • Metternich- Austrian foreign minister- constructor of the Vienna settlement • 1814 May- Treaty of Paris to “establish a real and permanent balance of power in Europe” ◦ Austria- geographic situation meant it was natural battlefield between East and West ◦ Britain- interest of balance of Europe to pursue commercial activity • Russian and Prussian challenges opposing settlement ◦ Prussia- vindictive- happy to give Polish gains toAlex I for little land in Saxon ◦ Alex I- wanted to restore and unify Poland to be king of Poland- standing army of 1 million • Castleraegh- Austria supported deal because otherwise pressured to give upAustrian Poland • 1814 Sep- even before settlement, France included into committee ◦ Napoleon 1815 Feb- escaped Island and 100 days episode • Treaty of Chaumont – first ceasefire offer to Napoleon and provision of settlement with France • 1815 June 9 Congress of Vienna and 2 /final treaty of Paris- by QuadrupleAlliance (Prussia, England, Austria, Russia) • roll back French borders to those of 1790, Holland joined United Kingdom of Netherlands ◦ buffer states of Prussia- defender of all Germany but reluctant mission ◦ Italy, Austria given Lombardy, Venetia- buffer states in South against France ◦ Piedement-Sardinia gained territory and received British naval power- base of Italian state From Congress System to Concert of Europe January 9 ◦ needed British naval power to contain Russian and French power ▪ France to West and Russia to east-want to stop Russia from dominating whole of Poland • ultimately human factor that determine war/ peace- main workers Castleraegh and Metternich • 1815 Nov 26 QuadrupleAllianceArticle 6 “For the purpose of consulting upon their common interests and for the maintenance of the peace of Europe” • late 1817- France- restless, needed to pay reparations , French opinion anti-allied- ◦ Russia- TsarAlexander I- under influence of ambassadors of various nations (Greek, Italian, Spanish) who told him Vienna settlement was as anti-Russian-recommended Russo-French • 1818- Alex proposed far reaching responsibilities of Quadruple alliance ◦ “alliance solidaire” - police entire continent and ensure all governments ◦ Mettenich- though it would help to retain Russia ◦ Castleraegh-preferred existing QuadrupleAlliance-main aim to prevent redeveloping France ▪ suspicious of Alex- possible international police force where Russian army major role • 1818 Sep 30 Aix-la-Chapelle - allies agree to disoccupy France – major opportunity ◦ suggested QuintupleAlliance-maintain existing peace and observe borders of 1815 • HollyAlliance- Alex I going through religious conversion at time of Congress of Vienna ▪ promising to conduct foreign policies according to ethical Christian Principles ▪ Castleraegh and Metternich unimpressed but passive acknowledgement • 1820- revolutions broke out in Spain and Naples – both Bourbon powers ◦ Metternich felt personal dues (family connections) - wanted to fight revolution ◦ summoned conference at Troppau -powers should be ready to intervene- counter revolution • Britain- adamant that states shouldn't intervene in others ◦ Austria, Prussia, Russia- promised to intervene but Metternich didn't want Russia acting ▪ in the end French army quelled Spanish revolution • new foreign secretary Canning after Castleraegh - still refused to join France ◦ “things getting back to wholesome state of affairs- every nation for itself and God for us all” • Failures - Congress system dead and limits of HolyAlliance- couldn't defeated Revolution • Holy Alliance successful in diffusing Eastern Question ◦ HabsburgAustrian and Romanov Russian- natural enemies of Ottoman ◦ Metternich- “the complications that may ensue in the East defy all complications” • 1821- Greek challenge- Russia golden opportunity of exploiting Ottoman-but great restraint • 1829- Russian diplomats met to discuss Turkey's fate - preserve Ottoman Empire best ▪ what after- some provinces would be taken by other great powers- weak Turks better • 1833 Sep Treaty of MuchengratzAustria - Russia - doable again because of Russian restraint ◦ keep Ottoman Empire,Act together under threat, respect each others Balkan interest • 1831- provisional government of Egypt (part of Ottoman)-MohammadAli rebel against Russia • 1833 Unkiar Skelessi - Russia-Turkey agreement, if Russia at war, Turkey will close Isthmus Strait in Black sea- Western powers afraid Russia could open and close strait as they wished- Crimean War and Peace • Metternich fear one might achieve greater advantage through Ottoman empire break-up ◦ important-restraint, responsibility, and moderation-underpin policies of 1815-late 1840s • mid 1850s- international conflict - which Christian power, France or Russia should govern Christian sites like Bethlehem and Jerusalem - Marginal issue but cause of the Crimean War • Britain and France vs. Russia -real source of conflict- hypersensitivity of current circumstances ◦ 1848-9 revolutions of Prussia, France,Austria, and
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