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Napoleon III, Italian and German Unification

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Denis Smyth

7) Napoleon III, Italian and German Unification Napoleon III and the Wars of Italian unification January 20 Napoleon III- trying to become great power again th ◦ mid 19 ce- central European national's time has come • Germans and Italians- trying to establish own nations- unsatisfactory with international order ◦ unless system was stable enough, with demands of central Europe would break down • 14 Jan 1858- Italian radical patriots- expressed dissatisfaction with Napoleon's inaction • Piedmont-Sardinia nationalism ◦ no chance of Italian unification immediately but France for help inAustria domination • 20 July 1858- Victor Emmanuel ◦ France and Sardinia- secret plan for war againstAustria ◦ Italy consolidated, but only big enough to be French satellite- Nice and Savoy to France ◦ France wanted promise of Russian help if Prussia helpedAustria ▪ Alex II only promised neutrality despite offers ofAustrian Poland • Napoleon's letter to Russia- “What is it that I want? That Austria leave the congress isolated” • Britain pro-Austria suddenly demanded Piedmont Sardinia be demobilized ◦ international opinion swung in favour of Piedmont • 24 June 1859- Austrians defeated by French and Piedmont forces • July 11- French signed armistice of Villafranca withAustria ◦ Peace of Urich- Northeast Lombardy given toAustria ◦ Northern Italy uprisings of middle class ▪ Napoleon broke pact- didn't want to risk being leader of scum of Europe ◦ Italian nationalists routingAustria satellites in EasternAustria and going against Napoleon ▪ Buol honoured his part of deal- fall from office • Garibaldi- didn't likeAustria in Italy and Sicily and southern Italy ruled by Bourbon monarchy • Napoleon dominating Italy as French satellite – but didn't calculate for Italian middle class- • Internal dynamic- Garibaldi- committed lifelong revolutionary and citizen of Nice ◦ France promised Savoy monarchy and Nice • 1860 spring- Garibaldi seized social revolution in Sicily (peasant revolt, Sicilian separation) ◦ appealed volunteers to join him against Sicily- but only few undergraduates joined him • 11 May 1860 – landed on Sicily ◦ Italian government sent small attachment, but Garibaldi routed them • 19 Aug- Garibaldi began to march north and claimed to be liberating Naples and invade Papal states (guarded by France), Nice etc. • 1 Oct- Garibaldi utterly defeated French forces in Naples • 26 Oct- Victor Emmanuel of Piedmont met Garibaldi -Garibaldi offered him all conquests • Mar 1861- kingdom of Italy born -Buol- 3 Oct- “I'm setting an example of which Prussia in due course will probably be very glad to imitate” • Bismarck- had denounced German nationalism in late 1840s- what transformed his attitude? ◦ Bismarck a realist- coined politics as “art of the possible” ◦ “Politics is not an exact and logical science. But it is the capacity to choose in each fleeting moment of the situation that which is least harmful or most opportune” ◦ opposed nationalism but realized German nationalism unstoppable - disunity a threat ◦ if there to be a revolution, should make it, not suffer it - ruling class should use nationalism • 1859-Bismarck- “the only reliable lasting ally which Prussia could have it behaves the right way is the German people” ◦ “But I would be need to be blind and brainless not to see what the situation really is” • Napoleon III trying to get powers together to achieve conclusion on various issues ◦ rival claims between Germans and Danes over who to rule Schleswig- Holstein ◦ Napoleon though big powers could enforce their decisions upon smaller ones • late 1862- constitutional impasse in Prussia ◦ King William- struggle with House to raise money- met reluctantly with Bismarck ◦ Bismarck- persuaded that great questions not solved in congress but by military • Bismarck- Prussia's frontiers not secure enough ◦ to achieve territorial security needed to use nationalism ▪ prepared to do with or withoutAustria-Austria not ready to give up position as leader • Schleswig-Holstein Question ◦ Germans 1862- in total control of Denmark and Schleswig- Holstein ▪ Bismarck- should get them since within Prussia's natural borders ◦ 14Aug 1865- compromise in convention of Gastein - Prussia- Schleswig,Austria-Holstein • 28 Fe
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