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Bismarck 1862-1890, Weltpolitik after 1890

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University of Toronto St. George
Denis Smyth

8) Bismarck 1862-1890, Weltpolitik after 1890 Bismarck and the States System 1871-79 January 27 • Bismarck closed some options by alienating France through integration ofAlsace-Lorraine • Bismarck had debts to pay to popular German national movement for German security • Bismarck try revive Holy Alliance- union of Northern course -encouraged Russia-Austrian nt ◦ June 1873- Russia and Austria agreed to consult each other-necessary to contain Balkan area ◦ little choice but to agree- didn't want the other to form bilateral agreement with Germany • 3 Emperor's League -loose organization-failed to protect Germanr and couldn't contain East • 'War in Sight” crisis- Franco-German - fear of German at quick French recovery in 1871 ◦ Mar 1875- French legislature enlarged range of men capable of being conscripted ◦ 1875 Apr 8- article concerning war in sight published in France -other states rallying ◦ 3 Emperor's Alliance hadn't even guaranteed loyalty-Britain and Russia wouldn't be neutral • July 1875- rebellion in Bosnia- Herzegovina against Turkish rule ◦ 1877- Russian empire entered war against Turks -inflicted defeat in Dec 1877 in Plevna ▪ Austria-Hungary had sanctioned war, in that Russia occupy Bosnia-Herzegovina • San Stefano 3 March 1878-independent Bulgaria- natural Russian satellite-Austria didn't like • Congress of Berlin 1878 - failure of 3 Emperor's League -reduced Bulgarian kingdom to a third • 1879 Aug 15- TsarAlex personal attack to Wilhem --prompted Bismarck to tight alliance • 1879 Aug 29- Bismarck's memorandum to Wilhem I - had traditionally been in favour of Russia ◦ but change of heart- Russian behaviour too unpredictable ▪ nowAustria should be Germany's preferred in partner -more in common: German kinship, historical memories, German language, to keep Hungarians underAustria ▪ reasons to persuade king though Bismarck didn't necessarily believe it • Austro-German DualAlliance- should one be attacked by Russia to come to each other's help ◦ Andrassy refused to help against France-butAustria promised benevolent neutrality in war ◦ Saburov- Russian ambassador to Bismarck-news ofAustroGerman deal sobering impact ▪ Bismarck- “I knew that the Russians would come to us when we nail downAustria” • Grossdeutsch- incorporate CatholicAustrians and some Slavic population – would seek Russia • Kleindeutsch- Austria excluded in greater Germany ◦ Bismarck- Austria had to be kept out or else big war with Slavs -“ New creations in this territory would be only such that bear a permanent revolutionary character” Bismarck and the States System, 1880-90 January 30 • Oct 1879- Bismarck signed deal withAustria despite Russian rapprochement ◦ obvious strategic deal ▪ Bismarck- if Austria off the map- Germany isolated with Italy, Russia, and France ◦ Bismarck- goal of having smaller Germany excluding Slavs andAustria ▪ but still hoped to bring Russia on board- had failed to bring Britain to tripatriate system • June 18 1881- the Three Emperor'sAlliance ◦ 1) fairly bland- promised other powers neutrality should be attacked by 4 th ◦ 2) mediate Balkan Question- permanently setAustria and Russia at odds ▪ would have to keep them off fighting for Ottoman territory-scared Germany dragged in ▪ Bismarck pessimistic about postponing Balkan conflict forever • 1882 May 20 TripleAlliance ◦ initiative by Italy- aspirations in NorthAfrica - tried to bolster position against France ◦ Bismarck sceptical of benefits Italy could provide - but meant that Italy wouldn't align with France or against Russia, andAustro-Italian aspirations contained • Germany needed a coalition of 3 ◦ France never forgave Germany takingAlsace-Lorraine- permanently alienated ◦ Britain also not in good terms- onlyAustria and Russia possible- but mortal enemies • Sep 18 1885- war of Bulgaria and Serbia- Bulgaria won and enlarged territory with spoils ◦ but enlarged Bulgaria wanted to be independent- no longer Russian satellite ▪ Austria worried of pro- Russian Bulgarian regime ◦ Sep 1886- - Russia promoted pro-Russian candidate Ferdinand of Saxe-Coburg ◦ Russia on brink of invading Bulgaria -Austria- it went against 3 Emperors'Alliance ◦ Bismarck- realized need to do something ▪ for once put his logic on paper – didn't usually write opinions down • wrote to son Herbert Bismarck Oct 1886 “ Germans could certainly tolerateAustria losing a battle, but notAustria should be destroyed or fatally wounded, or made a dependency of Russia. The Russians do not possess the kind of self restraint that would make it possible for us to live alone with them and France on the continent “ ▪ policy of supportingAustria without telling them while publicly supporting Russia • when Austria asked Bismarck for h
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