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Denis Smyth (169)

Western, Eastern, and Pacific fronts

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University of Toronto St. George
Denis Smyth

12) Western, Eastern, and Pacific fronts War in the Pacific, 1941-44 March 27 • Hitler's underestimation of Britain's power paled 1937-1945 Japanese miscalcuation • Pacific front- grand strategic blunders -went to war with China- most populous, British Empire- largest, US- greatest economy, USSR- greatest army ◦ militant economy after depression, assassination of liberals • like Germany thought should conquer land abroad • 7 July 1937- Japan staged Marco Polo Bridge, Nov 1937 and Dec- Shanghai and Nanqing fell • Western powers began to support Chinese resistance under Chang Kai Shek ◦ $5million a day cost Japan to restrain China • 1939-41- Japan threatened French Indochina , July 1941- US imposed trade embargo on Japan- • Japan forced into war after embargo- but by spring 1942 would've been bankrupt anyways ◦ had to either abandon project or look for resources in Dutch East Indies or British Malay • Dec 7 1941attack pre-emptiveley-Pearl Harbour-great execution (deciphers, total surprise) ◦ but air carriers flying in Europe, real resources strategic capacity to rebuild untargeted ◦ knew were going to lose to US but assumed cultural superiority, and underestimated enemy • Battle of Midway 3 June 1942- supportedAmerican air base ◦ Yamamoto's logic- general in charge of Pearl Harbour-assumed communications secure ▪ American attempt to decode Japanese ciphers- scheme to make sure target was Midway ◦ -apan lost 4 aircraft carriers, constructed 2 more, Us lost 1 constructed 90 • Japan thought US wouldn't have stomach to continue on war • by 1944 US in position to do full on counterattack through “island-hopping” • US submarine attack against Japanese merchant ships, amphibious campaign, strategic bombing • Letye Gulf in Philippines- June Oct 1944- key turning point in naval battle ◦ Philippines- largest carrier/naval battle= Japan 5 US 7-in every category Japan outnumbered ◦ crucial US advantage- shipbourne radar • American attacks high casualties- debate between US high command on how to use B-29 • way to bring home war to Japanese- had to bomb cities, not factories The Resurgence of theAllies, 1942-43 April 1 • Soviet 3/4 of coal, iron, steel, and railway in Nazi hands • summer 1942- Hitler another blitzkrieg towards Caucus mountains • Von Paulus penetrated Stalingrad- thought would succeed-but late July 1942 Stalin stiffened ◦ Stalin realized he was not military genius- withdrew from decision-making • Zhukov (violent/aggressive) and Vasilevsky (sympathetic, rational) -reorganized RedArmy ◦ Stalingrad Pocket- RedArmy entrapped German armies • 31 Jan 1942- Field marshal Von Paulus surrendered all soldiers r- German retreat in West • Battle of Kursk- July 1942- 3600 RedArmy tanks waited for Nazi • July 1943- Nazi aircrafts bombed heavily • “beginning of war everything done in hurry and time was lacking. Now go calmly into action” • Nazi lost 50% of tanks and had to withdraw-Hitler break from offensive and move to defensive ◦ RedArmy unleashed counterattack and plus British plus Canadian backup • In the 1942- Soviet was outproducing tanks than Germans • July-Nov 1941-1300 enterprises move eastwards-ripped railway to prevent Germans from using • Stalin and Zhukov admitted that would've faile
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