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HIS103 3. The War of the Spanish Succession and the Peace of Utrecht.pdf

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University of Toronto St. George
Denis Smyth

The  War  of  the  Spanish  Succession  and  the  Peace  of  Utrecht   September  24,  2012   Key  words   Notes     • An  essay  on  the  great  powers.  He  argued  that  the  ability  of   Van  Ranke   the  great  powers  to  co-­‐exit  began  at  a  moment  in  time.  They     emerged  and  learned  the  hard  way  to  cooperate  and     collaborate  in  an  organized  way.  Great  wars  made  the  great     powers  and  the  working  international  system.       • Van  Ranke  essay  on  the  great  powers.  In  which  he  said,    “the     concept  of  European  balance  of  power  was  developed  in     order  that  the  union  of  many  other  states  might  resist  the     pretensions  of  exbortants  (Louis  XIV)  courts.  The  forces  of     resistance  (resistance  against  dominating  tendency  of  Louis)     gathered  around  Holland  (largest  province  in  Dutch     republic)  and  William  III”   William  of  orange  III:   • William  III  was  a  considerate  monarch  because  he  was  the   was  a  monarch,  then  a   prince  of  Orange.  He  later  became  the  King  of  England.   prince  of  Orange  and  also   • In  the  early  1670’s  when  the  France  of  Louis  picked  a  fight   was  the  became  the  king   with  the  Dutch  republic,  it  looked  like  a  very  unequal  contest.   of  England.     • And  around  him  would  indeed  collapse  the  forces  of     resistance  and  his  eventual  fight  would  produce  first     working  international  order.  These  were  early  days  yet-­‐early     1670’s.  When  France  of  Louis  XIV  picked  a  fight  with  the     Dutch  Republic  it  was  a  very  unequal  contet.       • The  reasons  why  France  picked  Dutch  was  made  on  strategic     grounds     -­‐ Primarily  the  decision  to  fight  Dutch  was  made  on     strategic  grounds.       -­‐ Wanted  to  take  in  the  Spanish  Netherlands  (first  order     for  the  monarchy  for  Louis  XIV)  was  because  30-­‐year  war     had  shown  that  this  was  the  natural  invasion  path.  If     France  could  absorb  the  Spanish  Netherlands  as  a  sort  of     buffer  zone,  this  would  be  much  more  Secure  against   Triple  alliance:  England,   foreign  aggressors  and  invaders.     Dutch,  and  Sweden.     -­‐ A  few  years  earlier,  in  1660,  the  French  had  attempted  to     seize  the  Spanish  Netherlands.  However,  Sweden,     England  and  Dutch  formed  the  triple  alliance  to  fight     France  off.  France  realized  that  the  Dutch  would  never     allow  them  to  simply  take  the  buffer  zone  without     interfering  in  the  project.  The  Dutch  republics  logic,  for     maintaining  the  Spanish  Netherlands  it  was  the     intervening  territory  between  the  Dutch  republic  and     France  proper.  Their  logic  in  maintaining  the  southern     Netherlands,  (far  away  Spain)  was  clearly  a  defensive     motive.  This  is  how  one  British  diplomatic  explained  the     Dutch  point  of  view,  “the  Dutch  felt  that  once  Flanders     (one  of  the  main  provinces  Dutch)  was  in    the  power  of     Louis  XIV  their  country  would  be  nothing  but  a  maritime     province  of  France.         -­‐ Also  religious  differences.  The  French  considered  the     Dutch  heretics.       -­‐ There  were  also  economics  factors.  The  Dutch  Republic     had  overtaken  maritime  trading  and  you  could  only  go  to     a  certain  quota.  The  French  wanted  a  greater  share  of  the     maritime  trade.         • Louis  XIV  proceeded  only  after  he  was  sure  that  no  Triple     alliance  would  veto  his  decision  to  wage  war  against  the     Dutch.  Moved  diplomatically  to  the  war  by  acquiring  allies     and  determine  potential  enemies  or  foe  in  the  making.  Firs     and  foremost  in  his  campaign  was  England  of  the  restored     monarch  Charles  II.       • England  had  a  turbulent  time  during  the  1640’s.     Constitutional  row  between  House  of  Commons  and  the     monarch  over  power.  Especially  the  one  who  controlled  the     English  state  finances,  but  once  the  great  defender  of  the     English  revolution,  Oliver  Cormwell,  the  British  were  lost     and  didn’t  know  who  to  turn  to.  Charles  the  II,  who  had     previously  lived  in  exile,  became  the  new  leader.  He  kept  the     same  agenda  as  his  father.  He  tried  to  get  more  power  for  the     monarchy  and  financial  independence  from  the  House  of     Commons-­‐Its  ability  to  control  and  give  the  money  to  the     royal  powers.  It  turned  to  France  for  bribes.  Charles  II  wasn’t     averse  for  defending  the  Dutch,  but  he  was  willing  to  even  go     into  war  with  Dutch  due  to  private  and  political  agenda.  He   Charles  II   willingly  hired  out  the  British  army  for  money  from  the     French.       • Treaty  of  Dover:  June  1670.  Which  meant  the  British   Treaty  of  Dover:  1670.   soldiers  were  at  beck  and  call  of  the  French  so  that   When  Charles  II  hired   Charles  II  could  get  money  in  return  from  the  French.     out  his  army  to  the   • Second  treaty  in  December  of  the  same  year.  The  treaty   French  for  money.     was  fully  concluded.     Second  treay  in   • Over  the  course  of  time  this  turns  out  to  be  a  bad  decision  for   deceember  to  conclude   Charles  II.  The  amount  of  money  he  got  from  the  French  was   the  treaty.     a  quarter  million  pounds.  Financially  the  English  lost  out  a     big  deal  and  Charles  II  was  outwitted  by  Louis  XIV.     • When  it  came  to  securing  other  allies,  Louis  XIV  had  a  hard     time.  Two  small  German  states  did  sign  on.  They  weren’t  just     military  allies  but  also  geo-­‐politically  situated  allies,  which   How  Louis  XIV  prepared   wouldn’t  allow  Spaniards  to  intervene  and  good  access  to  the   to  attack  the  dutch   Dutch.     -­‐ got  geopolitically   -­‐ Cologne  -­‐  northwestern  German  territory   situated  allies   -­‐ Munster  –  smaller  territory   -­‐ signed  a  neutrality   • After  that  he  tried  to  get  the  Swedes  to  get  on  board  for   pact  with  Sweden   neutrality.  They  weren’t  going  to  impose  on  his  act  but  they   -­‐ Reassured  that   were  going  to  join  in  the  fight  either.     Catholic  Austria  and   • Louis  said  that  wasn’t  enough.  Surely  Catholic  Hapsburg   Spain  don’t  come  to   Austria  and  Catholic  Spain  wouldn’t  rush  to  help  the  Dutch   Protestant  Dutch’s   republic.   aid.     • It  looked  in  the  early  stages  of  the  war,  which  began  in  April     1672  that  Louis  XIV  had  planned  very  strategically  and     correctly  the  scale  of  weakness  of  the  opposition.  English  had     opened  the  war  on  a  Dutch  Convey  in  the  Channel.  In  June     the  French  military  ran  over  the  three  of  Dutch  provinces,     which  mainly  made  the  Dutch  Republic.       • It  looked  like  Louis  XIV  was  going  to  take  over  Amsterdam     and  occupy  Holland  itself.  At  this  stage  however  occurred  a     series  of  events  that  astonished  Louis  and  his  court.  This     showed  where  they  had  gone  wrong  in  their  planning.       • Instead  the  Dutch  reacted  with  vigor.  They  breached  their   Flooding  of  the  city  to   sea  walls  and  the  sea  flooded  in  creating  a  barrier  between   act  as  a  barrier-­the  way   Amsterdam  and  the  French  army.     the  Dutch  acted  to  avoid   • The  army  was  stuck  behind  the  flooded  city,  thousands  of   the  French  army.     French  soldiers  died  in  this  marshy  and  unhealthy  climate.  In     the  meantime  the  Dutch  were  persuring  their  independent.     The  man  blamed  was  Johan  De  Witt.       • July  1672  Johan  De  Witt  was  torn  apart  by  a  mob  of     supporters  of  the  house  Orange     William  III  the  orange:   • By  then  the  Dutch  republic  had  a  new  defender  of  state.     22-­year-­old  defender  of   • William  III  the  orange:  was  the  new  defender  of  state  for   Dutch.  Captain  General   the  Dutch  republic.  He  energized  the  Dutch  defense  effort.  He   of  orange.     was  no  military  commander.  But  his  skill  did  lay  in     diplomacy.  He  wanted  to  persuade  the  other  powers  of     Europe.  He  survival  of  Dutch  republic  was  critical  for  the     survival  of  the  whole  of  Europe.       • He  went  on  missions  to  persuade  court  after  court  that  their     own  independence  was  threaten  by  the  French  court.       • His  campaign  succeeded  remarkable  because  he  was     preaching  to  the  converted,  in  Spain,  in  Austrian,  in     Brandenburg  Russia.  One  after  another  they  decided  that     they  too  had  to  fight  because  sooner  or  later  France  would     threaten  them  as  well.       • Even  before  any  formal  alliance  was  signed,  by  the  end  of     1672  powerful  armies  from  Habsburg  Austria,  Holy  Roman     empire  in  Germany  and  from  Brandenburg  Russia,  and     northwestern  Germany-­‐so  powerful  and  strong  was  the     intervention  that  they  intimidated  Cologne  and  Munster  to     withdraw  their  alliance.  Germany  was  now  united  behind  the     Dutch  Republic.       • In  England  the  cause  of  the  alliance  was  wildly  popular.  It’s     commitment  to  the  French  was  precarious.  With  the  wind  in     their  sails,  the  anti-­‐French  coalition  signed  a  formal  alliance     pledging  themselves  to  fight  against  France  to  defend  the   In  1673,  in  Hague  Spain   Dutch  Republic  and  any  other  state  that  was  threateed  by  the   and  Austria  signed  a   French.     formal  alliance  to  fight   • In  1673:  The  Hague  three  powers  signed  a  formal  alliance  to   France.  (Germany  also   fight  French  to  finish  in  defense  of  the  threatened  European   signed  on  through  Leopold   balance  of  powers.  They  were  Spain,  Austria  (also  Germany   because  he  was  the  Holy   through  Leopold).   Roman  Emperor)   • But  once  the  French  began  to  mobilize  the  entire  war  shifted     back  to  the  French  military.       • Critical  French  victory  came  to  spring  of  1677.  They  stormed     a  key  town  in  southern  Netherlands.  They  stormed  a  key     town.     • The  French  aristocrat  sent  his  army  in  the  wrong  direction     and  they  blundered  into  the  army  of  Dutch  Republic  with     Spanish  allies  and  the  French  routed  them  and  won.  It  was  a     military  victory  by  mistake     • That  is,  had  it  not  been  William  III  capability  to  fight  back  in     the  diplomatic  arena.  In  1677  William  III  had  a  notable     diplomatic  triumph.  By  dabbling  in  the  complicated  politics     of  the  England  family.       • Charles  II  was  heirless.  Heir  to  the  throne  was  James,  Charles     brother,  he  was  known  as  the  non-­‐qualified  believer  in  the     Catholic  branch  of  Christianity-­‐unpopular  with  great     majority  of  the  political  people  surrounding  him.  So     increasing  in  England  was  looking  for  a  protestant  candidate.       • Mary  became  protestant  and  later  in  November  marries   Mary:  who  became  a   William  the  orange.     protestant     • William  now  became  the  new  king  of  England  and  now  that     the  interest  lined  up  with  those  of  the  Dutch  Republic.  He     defected  with  his  alliance  with  France  and  marched  his  army     and  signs  a  military  alliance  with  the  Dutch.       • This  was  an  interesting  and  spectacular  diplomatic  victory.       • At  this  point  Louis  sees  that  there  are  problems   Regents:  rich   diplomatically   merchants/oligarchies   • So  Louis  points  out  to  the  Dutch  regents  that  this  war  was   who  were  dominating  the   costing  them  money.  They  were  losing  not  only  money  but   political  scene  in  Holland   were  losing  out  to  foreign  countries  as  their  share  of     maritime  was  diminishing.  Costing  the  Dutch  in  not  just     blood  but  also  in  treasure-­‐higher  taxation,  greater  waste  of     state  revenue  on  war  and  other  stuff.       • The  regents  broke  with  their  allies  and  signed  a  separate     peace  with  France.     Dutch  Republic  and  the   • They  signed  a  separate  peace  with  France  in  august  1678-­‐ French  signed  peace  on   france  and  Dutch  made  a  peace.     August  1678   -­‐ It  seemed  a  generous  peace  from  the  French  side.  Also     made  economics  changes.  All  of  the  tariffs  and  sanctions     were  lifted.       -­‐ Left  the  territory  in  the  Dutch  Republic  intact.     • This  was  still  not  enough  for  William  III.  Four  days  later  he     lead  the  Spanish  and  British  army  to  attack  the  French  army     on  the  Southern  Dutch  boarder.       • There  is  a  still  a  debate  why  did  this  battle  happen.  Both     sides       • French  historians  believe  that  William  III  did  know  but  this     was  a  move  to  wreck  the  peace  settlement  and  also  to     disobey  his  own  ruling  government.       • Other  historians  say  that  word  hadn’t  reached  him  yet.       • Of  course  with  the  Dutch  making  peace,  the  Spaniard  and  the     Austrian  had  no  choice  but  to  go  along.       • On  September  1678  the  Spanish  signed  on     • On  feburary1679  the  Holy  Roman  Empire       • Franco-­Dutch:  August  1678     • Franco-­Spanish:  September  1678   Peace  of  Nijmegen:  three   • Austro-­French:  February  1679   peaces  made  with  France   • These  are  collectively  known  as  the  peace  of  Nijmegen   between  Spain,  Holy   • They  are  for  the  most  part  characterized  as  the  leniency  by   roman  Empire,  and  the   the  moderation  of  terms  conceded  by  the  Victorian  French   Dutch  Republic.     military  sense  to  their  opponents.  French  did  get  a  few   strategic  territories  from  their  enemies-­‐like  in  the  southern   Spanish  Netherlands.   • There  was  little  territory  involved  because  in  the  peace   settlement,  which  had  been  bought  upon  their  enemies,  had   so  distrust  unity  among  francs  enemies  that  Fredrick  William   of  Brandenburg  founded  and  consolidated  the  power,  which   would  grow  into  Germany  of  modern  day.     • Generous  as  the  peace  was,  France  had  still  become  the   arbitrary  of  Europe.  This  was  because  of  the  distrust  instilled   into  the  other  European  allies  by  Louis  XIV  in  1678.  It   wrecked  the  possibility  of  Europe  mobilizing  once  again.  So   for  a  decade  French  had  its  way.     • The  peace  of  Nijmegen  wrecked  hope  for  the  establishment   of  a  balance  of  power  in  Europe.               From  the  Dutch  war  to  the  Nine  year  War   September  26,  2012   Key  words   Notes     • Thanks  to  the  changes  made  to  the  French  frontier,  in  the     peace  of  Nijmegen,  the  peace  that  ended  the  Dutch  war.       France  acquired  a  few  strategic  territories  and  that  critical     frontier  which  had  caused  France  to  be  invaded  several     times,  the  Dutch  and  the  30-­‐years  war,  should  also  support     the  avenue  along  which  German  armies  would  come  through     in  the  20  century.  That  critical  frontier  was  much  more     rational.       • When  it  came  to  Frances  eastern  frontier  however,  its     territory  warding  on  the  bank  of  the  mighty  river  Rhine,     which  lies  in  Switzerland  and  takes  a  sudden  turn  to  Russia,     Germany  and  Holland  before  it  turns  into  the  sea.  This  means     the  left  bank  would  be  right  near  France.  France  by  no  means     commanded  the  left  bank  of  the  Rhine  and  all  the  territory     that  conjoined  it.  This  also  included  the  Germany  Territory     but  it  didn’t  have  a  proper  frontier.         • Two  key  provinces  on  its  east  frontiers  and  neither  were   Two  key  frontiers   under  Frances  sovereign  control.     -­‐ Alsace:  owned  through   -­‐ Alsace  –  was  treated  by  Louis  as  if  it  was  part  of  its   military  occupation  but   southern  territory.    French  were  fully  in  possession  of  it   did  not  have  legal  right.     militarily-­‐they  were  occupying  it.  French’s  legal  right  to   -­‐ Lorraine:  was  awarded   own  this  territory  was  disputed  by  the  Holy  Roman,  an   to  France  under  the   Austrian  monarch  Leopold  the  first.  So  their  legal  right  to   peace  of  Nijmegen  but   Alsace  was  in  dispute  in  terms  of  current  international   the  duke  refused  to  
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