The Eighteenth Century Balance Power to the War of the Austrian
The nine-year war
October 1, 2012
Key words Notes
The more defensive The paradox that the more defensive priorities of the French
Louis XIV tried to national security policy under Louis XIV became, the more
become the more threatening the French military looked to the rest of Europe. The
threatened the rest of
more defensive they became the more threatening French
Europe felt. military policy seemed to be to rest of Europe.
They key issue was that more defenses Louis became he still
The siege of the town managed to make moves and present his attitude towards the
of Phillipsburg was rest of Europe in a way that alarmed and provoked him.
what started the Nine- This precipitated the Nine-year war. The French seized
Philipsburg in late September 1688 and the fall of the city of
Phillipsburg to the besieging French at the end of 29 October
Two defensive motives This was a defensive move by the French. The two motives
taken by France prompting the move. They were essentially defensive motives
1. Relieve pressure on prompting the return of Hapsburg and German imperial military
power to the Rhine land zone separating France and Germany.
2. Secure France - One to relieve pressure on the Turks (ottoman) their allies in
frontier and make it Europe now hard-pressed by the Hapsburg power. They did
more secure from this by diverting forces back to Rhine.
the Hapsburg and - Second to secure Frances frontier and make it more
German forces. defendable against the inevitable return of the Hapsburg and
German armies from their successful campaign against the
Turks. And return the German military power to Rhine.
The immediate response however of the German states to the
forward move, however defensively motivated, rather confused
the French policy makers and indicated that they have
miscalculated their capacity to intimidate the rest of Europe.
First off there was an impressive immediate collective response
from some of the medium sized Germany states.
Magdeburg concert: Mid October 1688 Magdeburg Concert: Brandenburg, Saxony
formed between three and Brunswick Luneburg- three electoral states from Germany.
electoral states in They came together to form the Magdeburg Concert in mid
Germany as a response October 1688. All the better to resist the French aggression
to the defensive steps
taken by Louis XIV. against German states.
It wasn’t long before Max Emmanuel of Bavaria stormed back to
the Rhineland and forced a French retreat back from their
position beyond river Rhine itself and retreat back to their sites
This powerful initial show of force and strength, which clearly
reflected a wide spread feeling amongst the rulers and peoples
of German state, gave the Louis XIV and his strategic counselors
like Louvre, a considerable pause for thought. At that contest of
growing alarmed at the unity among the German in the face of French publication, the French policy makers decided that they
Burning of Palatinate would have embark on a savage policy they embarked on a
and other cities along tragic campign. In the Palatinate and in some other important
the Rhine was a cities along the region of the Rhine, in the winter of 1688 and
defensive move to stop 1689 embarked upon a systemic campaign of material
the Hapsburg and destruction of those towns. They burnt and destroyed the heart
German armies from of many of those cities. In deliberate policies of scorched earth.
accessing basic needs They burned the towns and destroyed. It was about how it was
such as food and made to look in the propaganda arena. It wasn’t a declaration
shelter. war against the German people, although that was how it was
presented, it was more about German and Imperial propaganda.
It was to deny the returning Hapsburg and German imperial
army material basic food, shelter and so on, which they could
use to launch another attack against France.
The destruction of Palatinate and the Rhine lad was certainly a
policy that can be deemed as French arrogance and aggression.
In short term it actually worked. The Hapsburg army found very
little food and terrible shelter to stay in. However, in the long
term, this policy won dying enmity between the German and
also managed to alienate much of Europe.
Mesmerized as they were by the threat from across the Rhine,
Louis lost the plot. While they were busy shoring up the
defenses along their eastern frontiers, another great army was
occurring literally a few miles away from across the shoreline,
they lost a kingdom, a great power in the making, they lost Great
November 15, 1688: Exploiting the growing unpopularity of James II of England,
increasingly attempting to establish the rule and restore the
The day when catholic religions in what was now largely a protestant country,
William III landed in William III married the daughter of James II, and through her
Torby with an army claimed an English crown and landed within an invasion force in
and promised to England on 15 November 1688.
defend liberty of
England and the November 15, 1688: This was the glorious revolution. As the
protestant propaganda for the English William phrased it. .
rights of Protestants. He swept all before invading England, Scotland and Ireland.
Mostly the entire kingdom reunited under him and he rallied to
become the ruling monarch of England. Rallied to the throne,
William III, along with is wife Mary.
This was an extraordinary excision of strength. A huge inject of
force to the Anti-French coalition William III was prepared rally
May 12 1689 the the rest of Europe to get the French poles. With England now in
Dutch and the the anti- French camp, the other powers were quick to form an
Austrian form an alliance to contain and confine the French spread.
alliance to put France
back in its place. 12 may 1689; the Dutch and the Austrian concluded an alliance
to roll back France frontier from those indicated in the peace of
Westphalia. Everything they had gained from the Dutch wars
and the Chamber du Reunion were to be stripped. This was the
main focus of the anti-French alliance.
England joined the alliance in 1689 and in June 1690 Spain and Two commitments Savoy also adhered to the anti-French alliance.
made between allies: The two main commitments made between the allies were
1. Not to make - Make war with all their resources
separate peaces - Not to make any other separate peaces. Not to break ranks
2. Utilize all resources like what Dutch had done during the Dutch war.
to make war In a way the course of the 9-year war and the ultimate outcome
was included in these very terms. The French would prove a
match for the rest of the Europe. And in their military
mobilization and under their general ship. But if they French
proved themselves unbeatable the allies would show themselves
to be un-counter able. This showed that Europe could stand up
united to the French. And they acquit themselves with some
The actual course of campaigning swung from one side to
another. The French started badly because they hadn’t expected
such a widespread war. They were soon fighting in the Spanish
Netherlands, against the Savoy’s. They were fighting in three
different land fronts and they were also fighting on the sea
against the maritime powers- against the navies of England and
the Dutch Republic. England and the Dutch Republic were the
most powerful and important Naval powers on earth.
So the campaigns of 1689, 1690, 1691, didn’t go well for the
French. So many enemies from so many sides were attacking
Barbeziuex: Son of them that the French had it bad.
Louvre On the other hand they had a growing ability to feel ever more
powerful armies. But the early 1690’s Lourve and his son
Namur: Key fortress Barbeziuex the French army stood up to her historical
significance and height. Numbering about 400,000 strong. .
town in the Spanish They were capable of taking on their enemies.
Netherlands which was In June 1692 they successfully captured a town of Namur. The
captured by the French key fortress town in the Spanish Netherlands after a bitter siege.
in June 1692 In august 1692 they won a victory with the Dutch army-
town which the French Steenkerk.
In July 1693 they won Neerwinden. These were all land
won in a battle with victories in open battle, consolidated Frances position in the 9
the Dutch in 1962 Year war and put them in the winning advantage.
Neerwinden: won in These wins put them in the advantage.
However, in 1694 there was a bad harvest. The peasantry
1694 was a bad couldn’t pay enough taxes. Less taxation led to not enough
funding for the army and the poorer military they couldn’t
harvest for the French handle it.
and it hurt them And in 1695 the allies took the war by the horns. Even more
militarily. important, critical in the heel of the hunt was the emergence of
Britain as a great power. It would take a decisive strength. To
ensure that the allies would survive and emerge from the
conflict as undefeated in the overall strategic sense. Britain
contributed in numerous ways. Britain traced its war efforts
The British Financial back to one single factor. In the course of the war it laid its
foundation for its future power by a financial revolution. It William Paterson: a mobilized its financial resources in a way that no one had ever
Scotsman. Who seen. It had efficiency and effectiveness.
helped pushed the This caused it to turn into a world leader-despite its small
British Financial geographic size and compact population.
William Paterson: he persuaded this argument. He said there
was a need for practical proposal “nations now find how money
William III proposal commands all things. Particularly the sword. And they have
for economic change: reasons to know the wars of these times are rather to be waged
- Establish a bank in with Gold then with iron” he said this to William III.
1694 The practical proposals that William the III was making to turn
- Establish a national
his financial advice to an institutional reality.
debt in 1693 - Establish a national bank to guarantee a national medium of
financial enhancing in 1694
- Establish a national debt in 1693. A certain fund
underwritten by the government. To issue government bond
with interest. These were attracted to investors. The whole
power of the state was behind the national debt. In essence
what the government was doing was borrowing money
against future revenues. It would pay back these investors by
collecting money in the future. This would be put towards
The financial changes fighting the war.
worked for two
This system worked in two ways. Those institutional purposes
reasons. gave Great Britain unprecedented capacity to raise money for
1. The British state purposes-mostly to make war. Both having to do with the
monarchy, unlike confidence. Have it an unprecedented capacity to raise money
the French for war
monarchy had - The absolute monarchy of Louis XIV, the French state also
limits to what they
issued interest bonds. It ran up massive debts and didn’t
could and couldn’t really have intentions of paying them back because it was
do. The house of efficient in taxing its people. . He simply didn’t pay them
Commons was back. Quite often the French would repudiate its debt. This
made up of the didn’t happening Britain because it had a different political
land owning and system- A constitutional monarchy. There were limits of
what the king and queen could do. And those limits were set,
community. So the legal fundamental constitutional legal limits, by England’s
made sure that if House of Commons. Set by the English House of Commons,
someone bought a which represented the land owning population. It controlled
bond they got their England finances. It set the Royal budget. At approved the
money back in
return. budget for war and so on. It used this power systemically to
limit the loyal authority. This also meant the king couldn’t
2. The elite decided repudiate the bonds. So the landowners and businessmen
to raise taxes on were willing to lend their money. The political elite was
itself for the willing to pay more tax because they trusted their house of
nation. commons and the king. That political system which limited
the power of the monarchy as what made the interest bonds
- Even more important was that the political elite doubled the
taxes on themselves. They doubled the taxes, which lead to
more revenue for the 9-year war. This political elite was
willing to make this sacrifice for their nation. And this led to Britain becoming a great power. These financial changes
occurring within the context, the constitutional monarchy
that is what gave them the critical air as they came to
mobilize their forces for international display, and
Battle of Beachy Head: The result was quite extraordinary. The impact on war at land
- July 1690 and sea was extraordinary.
- Naval battle It was at war at sea where the British really cut a dash. You
between French could see the change made in couple of years. Even before the
and the British and great institutional financial chambers were made.
The initial encounter made at sea during the nine year was did
- The British and not go well for the maritime states. The combined fleets of
Dutch suffered Britain and Dutch faced bad times at the Battle of Beachy Head
numerous Battle of Beachy Head July 1690: without a single loss
casualties however themselves the French beat them bad.
the French didn’t
Spring 1692, subsequent to the sorting out of its finances and
loose a single ship. with Britain’s resources now in the right place, the military
mobilized and realized. It was the French who felt the defeat.
Now with the British and the Dutch fleet combined there was
almost 80 vessels and they crushed the French fleet barely half
The rest of the war La Hogue: in 29 May 1692 the combined
Anglo Dutch fleet met such a success that they never challenge
the British again. They scouted ships still. They adopted Guerre
de course where they basically disrupted the logistics of an
enemy on open sea by attacking merchant shipping rather then
engaging with the combatant themselves. but they never dared
again to challenge British fleet.
Britain had emerged country of the 9 year war as the dominant
role in the world.
The British role in subsiding its allies was vital. As it mobilized
more and more of its national wealth it paid much of the German
and even part of the Dutch and Austrian war efforts against
France. it become the pay master of the war effort with its
increasing wealth and financial resource.
Despite its large navy (140, 000 men) during the 9 year war.
The recapture of Namur in 1695 might have indicated that
Treaty of Turin: 1696s having won the war at the sea the Allies might have a chance
- Signed between actually cinching victory at land as well. As always-military
difficulty, Louis XIV pulled a diplomatic rabbit out of his hat.
France and the Louis XIV skillfully maneuvered the diplomatic table. What he
Duke of Savoy did was that on August 29, 1696 a key member of the Anti-
- Because Savoy was French alliance, in term of position, broke ranks and signed the
threatening France Treaty of Turin That was Duke Amadeus II of Savoy.
At this point Savoy was medium sized state threatening France
Southeastern Southeastern frontier. Perfect avenue of invasion into
frontier. southeastern France where Louis had station 30,000 elite troops
- Signed in return for
Nice, Pinerolo, and to meet the Austro threat.
Casale. The Treaty of Turin was signed in return for small territorial gain. The town of Nice and key fortress of Pinerolo. Casale was
also informally conceded to the Savoy by the French forces. They
did it by an agreement. The formal treaty just had Nice and
But in return for those successions Savoy broke its promise to
not sign a separate treaty. This lead to new agreement between
the powers in neutralizing the Italian area for war.
The Austrians knew that on their own they couldn’t resist the
French in the area. The French had invested interest in
neutralizing northern Italy because that would realize 30,000
troops to march north area of Spanish Netherlands.
When William III heard of this, despite his antagonism for the
French, he became an advocate of peace. He knew the Dutch and
Spanish troops couldn’t withstand this accretion of these
veteran troops to the French fighting in the Spanish
Netherlands. So he sanctions the beginning of Peace talks in his
own palace in Ryswick near the Hague.
The wider context for this peace was the growing cost of the
war. Now the Dutch were more secure in its independence and
England was safe from catholic invasion. The House of Commons
became tired about the financial aspect of war. So the political
Treaty of Ryswick:
people from both England and Dutch came out of favor for
- September 20, peace.
1697 On September 20, 1697 one of the longest European wars ended
- Signed between signed by France, Spain and the maritime states.
France, Spain and Leopold followed at the end of October and also signed the
the Maritime states
- Emperor Leopold treaty.
What was remarkable the scale of French concessions made for
also signed by Peace.
october They gave up Breisach, Lorraine and retained Strasbourg and
Alsace. They handed Luxemburg back to Spain. Which was
stunning because the Spanish had been utterly defeated. If
anyone had lost the 9-year war was the Spanish. Their own
heartland had been invaded the French in the northeastern city
of Barcelona and had been occupied.
There might had been some ulterior motive. The vast kingdom
of Spain was about to come up for grabs.
The 9-year war ended with such a settlement was because the
Spanish throne was about to be succeeded.
Succession to the Spanish throne. Charles was on his last leg.
The French had a powerful claim, the Bourbon to succeed the
throne. Louis was married to a Spanish royal member The Making of the European Balance of Power: the origins of the War and
the Spanish Succession
October 3, 2012
Key words Notes
A war whose outbreak, despite all the best efforts to avoid it- that
would give birth to the first functioning international order and
restore balance of power to the things in the history of the world.
It was also through this conflict that the world came to see three of
Important military the best military leaders. By any definition in the art of warfare.
leaders - John hennery Churchill, the Duke of Marlborough
- John Churchill- Duke - Prince Eugene of Savoy, a French aristocrat who ended up
of Marlborough fighting for the Austrian and Holy Roman empire against his
- Prince Eugene of whole country.
Savoy The outbreak of the war despite the common purpose and the best
efforts of all powers concerned to avoid that outcome. The stakes are
too high and the fears too profound to exercise the specter of war.
The common desi