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HIS103 4. The Eighteenth Century Balance Power to the War of the Austrian Succession.docx

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University of Toronto St. George
Denis Smyth

The Eighteenth Century Balance Power to the War of the Austrian Succession The nine-year war October 1, 2012 Key words Notes The more defensive  The paradox that the more defensive priorities of the French Louis XIV tried to national security policy under Louis XIV became, the more become the more threatening the French military looked to the rest of Europe. The threatened the rest of more defensive they became the more threatening French Europe felt. military policy seemed to be to rest of Europe.  They key issue was that more defenses Louis became he still The siege of the town managed to make moves and present his attitude towards the of Phillipsburg was rest of Europe in a way that alarmed and provoked him. what started the Nine-  This precipitated the Nine-year war. The French seized year war. Philipsburg in late September 1688 and the fall of the city of Phillipsburg to the besieging French at the end of 29 October 1688. Two defensive motives  This was a defensive move by the French. The two motives taken by France prompting the move. They were essentially defensive motives 1. Relieve pressure on prompting the return of Hapsburg and German imperial military Turks power to the Rhine land zone separating France and Germany. 2. Secure France - One to relieve pressure on the Turks (ottoman) their allies in frontier and make it Europe now hard-pressed by the Hapsburg power. They did more secure from this by diverting forces back to Rhine. the Hapsburg and - Second to secure Frances frontier and make it more German forces. defendable against the inevitable return of the Hapsburg and German armies from their successful campaign against the Turks. And return the German military power to Rhine.  The immediate response however of the German states to the forward move, however defensively motivated, rather confused the French policy makers and indicated that they have miscalculated their capacity to intimidate the rest of Europe.  First off there was an impressive immediate collective response from some of the medium sized Germany states. Magdeburg concert:  Mid October 1688 Magdeburg Concert: Brandenburg, Saxony formed between three and Brunswick Luneburg- three electoral states from Germany. electoral states in They came together to form the Magdeburg Concert in mid Germany as a response October 1688. All the better to resist the French aggression to the defensive steps taken by Louis XIV. against German states.  It wasn’t long before Max Emmanuel of Bavaria stormed back to the Rhineland and forced a French retreat back from their position beyond river Rhine itself and retreat back to their sites in Phillipsburg.  This powerful initial show of force and strength, which clearly reflected a wide spread feeling amongst the rulers and peoples of German state, gave the Louis XIV and his strategic counselors like Louvre, a considerable pause for thought. At that contest of growing alarmed at the unity among the German in the face of French publication, the French policy makers decided that they Burning of Palatinate would have embark on a savage policy they embarked on a and other cities along tragic campign. In the Palatinate and in some other important the Rhine was a cities along the region of the Rhine, in the winter of 1688 and defensive move to stop 1689 embarked upon a systemic campaign of material the Hapsburg and destruction of those towns. They burnt and destroyed the heart German armies from of many of those cities. In deliberate policies of scorched earth. accessing basic needs They burned the towns and destroyed. It was about how it was such as food and made to look in the propaganda arena. It wasn’t a declaration shelter. war against the German people, although that was how it was presented, it was more about German and Imperial propaganda.  It was to deny the returning Hapsburg and German imperial army material basic food, shelter and so on, which they could use to launch another attack against France.  The destruction of Palatinate and the Rhine lad was certainly a policy that can be deemed as French arrogance and aggression.  In short term it actually worked. The Hapsburg army found very little food and terrible shelter to stay in. However, in the long term, this policy won dying enmity between the German and also managed to alienate much of Europe.  Mesmerized as they were by the threat from across the Rhine, Louis lost the plot. While they were busy shoring up the defenses along their eastern frontiers, another great army was occurring literally a few miles away from across the shoreline, they lost a kingdom, a great power in the making, they lost Great Britain. November 15, 1688:  Exploiting the growing unpopularity of James II of England, glorious revolution. increasingly attempting to establish the rule and restore the The day when catholic religions in what was now largely a protestant country, William III landed in William III married the daughter of James II, and through her Torby with an army claimed an English crown and landed within an invasion force in and promised to England on 15 November 1688. defend liberty of England and the  November 15, 1688: This was the glorious revolution. As the protestant propaganda for the English William phrased it. . rights of Protestants.  He swept all before invading England, Scotland and Ireland. Mostly the entire kingdom reunited under him and he rallied to become the ruling monarch of England. Rallied to the throne, William III, along with is wife Mary.  This was an extraordinary excision of strength. A huge inject of force to the Anti-French coalition William III was prepared rally May 12 1689 the the rest of Europe to get the French poles. With England now in Dutch and the the anti- French camp, the other powers were quick to form an Austrian form an alliance to contain and confine the French spread. alliance to put France back in its place.  12 may 1689; the Dutch and the Austrian concluded an alliance to roll back France frontier from those indicated in the peace of Westphalia. Everything they had gained from the Dutch wars and the Chamber du Reunion were to be stripped. This was the main focus of the anti-French alliance.  England joined the alliance in 1689 and in June 1690 Spain and Two commitments Savoy also adhered to the anti-French alliance. made between allies:  The two main commitments made between the allies were 1. Not to make - Make war with all their resources separate peaces - Not to make any other separate peaces. Not to break ranks 2. Utilize all resources like what Dutch had done during the Dutch war. to make war  In a way the course of the 9-year war and the ultimate outcome was included in these very terms. The French would prove a match for the rest of the Europe. And in their military mobilization and under their general ship. But if they French proved themselves unbeatable the allies would show themselves to be un-counter able. This showed that Europe could stand up united to the French. And they acquit themselves with some distinctions.  The actual course of campaigning swung from one side to another. The French started badly because they hadn’t expected such a widespread war. They were soon fighting in the Spanish Netherlands, against the Savoy’s. They were fighting in three different land fronts and they were also fighting on the sea against the maritime powers- against the navies of England and the Dutch Republic. England and the Dutch Republic were the most powerful and important Naval powers on earth.  So the campaigns of 1689, 1690, 1691, didn’t go well for the French. So many enemies from so many sides were attacking Barbeziuex: Son of them that the French had it bad. Louvre  On the other hand they had a growing ability to feel ever more powerful armies. But the early 1690’s Lourve and his son Namur: Key fortress Barbeziuex the French army stood up to her historical significance and height. Numbering about 400,000 strong. . town in the Spanish They were capable of taking on their enemies. Netherlands which was  In June 1692 they successfully captured a town of Namur. The captured by the French key fortress town in the Spanish Netherlands after a bitter siege. in June 1692  In august 1692 they won a victory with the Dutch army- Steenkerk: another town which the French Steenkerk.  In July 1693 they won Neerwinden. These were all land won in a battle with victories in open battle, consolidated Frances position in the 9 the Dutch in 1962 Year war and put them in the winning advantage. Neerwinden: won in  These wins put them in the advantage. 1693.  However, in 1694 there was a bad harvest. The peasantry 1694 was a bad couldn’t pay enough taxes. Less taxation led to not enough funding for the army and the poorer military they couldn’t harvest for the French handle it. and it hurt them  And in 1695 the allies took the war by the horns. Even more economically and militarily. important, critical in the heel of the hunt was the emergence of Britain as a great power. It would take a decisive strength. To ensure that the allies would survive and emerge from the conflict as undefeated in the overall strategic sense. Britain contributed in numerous ways. Britain traced its war efforts The British Financial back to one single factor. In the course of the war it laid its Revolution foundation for its future power by a financial revolution. It William Paterson: a mobilized its financial resources in a way that no one had ever Scotsman. Who seen. It had efficiency and effectiveness. helped pushed the  This caused it to turn into a world leader-despite its small British Financial geographic size and compact population. revolution.  William Paterson: he persuaded this argument. He said there was a need for practical proposal “nations now find how money William III proposal commands all things. Particularly the sword. And they have for economic change: reasons to know the wars of these times are rather to be waged - Establish a bank in with Gold then with iron” he said this to William III. 1694  The practical proposals that William the III was making to turn - Establish a national his financial advice to an institutional reality. debt in 1693 - Establish a national bank to guarantee a national medium of financial enhancing in 1694 - Establish a national debt in 1693. A certain fund underwritten by the government. To issue government bond with interest. These were attracted to investors. The whole power of the state was behind the national debt. In essence what the government was doing was borrowing money against future revenues. It would pay back these investors by collecting money in the future. This would be put towards The financial changes fighting the war. worked for two  This system worked in two ways. Those institutional purposes reasons. gave Great Britain unprecedented capacity to raise money for 1. The British state purposes-mostly to make war. Both having to do with the monarchy, unlike confidence. Have it an unprecedented capacity to raise money the French for war monarchy had - The absolute monarchy of Louis XIV, the French state also limits to what they issued interest bonds. It ran up massive debts and didn’t could and couldn’t really have intentions of paying them back because it was do. The house of efficient in taxing its people. . He simply didn’t pay them Commons was back. Quite often the French would repudiate its debt. This made up of the didn’t happening Britain because it had a different political land owning and system- A constitutional monarchy. There were limits of business what the king and queen could do. And those limits were set, community. So the legal fundamental constitutional legal limits, by England’s made sure that if House of Commons. Set by the English House of Commons, someone bought a which represented the land owning population. It controlled bond they got their England finances. It set the Royal budget. At approved the money back in return. budget for war and so on. It used this power systemically to limit the loyal authority. This also meant the king couldn’t 2. The elite decided repudiate the bonds. So the landowners and businessmen to raise taxes on were willing to lend their money. The political elite was itself for the willing to pay more tax because they trusted their house of nation. commons and the king. That political system which limited the power of the monarchy as what made the interest bonds work. - Even more important was that the political elite doubled the taxes on themselves. They doubled the taxes, which lead to more revenue for the 9-year war. This political elite was willing to make this sacrifice for their nation. And this led to Britain becoming a great power. These financial changes occurring within the context, the constitutional monarchy that is what gave them the critical air as they came to mobilize their forces for international display, and demonstration. Battle of Beachy Head:  The result was quite extraordinary. The impact on war at land - July 1690 and sea was extraordinary. - Naval battle  It was at war at sea where the British really cut a dash. You between French could see the change made in couple of years. Even before the and the British and great institutional financial chambers were made. Dutch.  The initial encounter made at sea during the nine year was did - The British and not go well for the maritime states. The combined fleets of Dutch suffered Britain and Dutch faced bad times at the Battle of Beachy Head numerous  Battle of Beachy Head July 1690: without a single loss casualties however themselves the French beat them bad. the French didn’t  Spring 1692, subsequent to the sorting out of its finances and loose a single ship. with Britain’s resources now in the right place, the military mobilized and realized. It was the French who felt the defeat. Now with the British and the Dutch fleet combined there was almost 80 vessels and they crushed the French fleet barely half their size.  The rest of the war La Hogue: in 29 May 1692 the combined Anglo Dutch fleet met such a success that they never challenge the British again. They scouted ships still. They adopted Guerre de course where they basically disrupted the logistics of an enemy on open sea by attacking merchant shipping rather then engaging with the combatant themselves. but they never dared again to challenge British fleet.  Britain had emerged country of the 9 year war as the dominant role in the world.  The British role in subsiding its allies was vital. As it mobilized more and more of its national wealth it paid much of the German and even part of the Dutch and Austrian war efforts against France. it become the pay master of the war effort with its increasing wealth and financial resource.  Despite its large navy (140, 000 men) during the 9 year war.  The recapture of Namur in 1695 might have indicated that Treaty of Turin: 1696s having won the war at the sea the Allies might have a chance - Signed between actually cinching victory at land as well. As always-military difficulty, Louis XIV pulled a diplomatic rabbit out of his hat. France and the  Louis XIV skillfully maneuvered the diplomatic table. What he Duke of Savoy did was that on August 29, 1696 a key member of the Anti- Amadeus II. - Because Savoy was French alliance, in term of position, broke ranks and signed the threatening France Treaty of Turin That was Duke Amadeus II of Savoy.  At this point Savoy was medium sized state threatening France Southeastern Southeastern frontier. Perfect avenue of invasion into frontier. southeastern France where Louis had station 30,000 elite troops - Signed in return for Nice, Pinerolo, and to meet the Austro threat. Casale.  The Treaty of Turin was signed in return for small territorial gain. The town of Nice and key fortress of Pinerolo. Casale was also informally conceded to the Savoy by the French forces. They did it by an agreement. The formal treaty just had Nice and Pinerolo.  But in return for those successions Savoy broke its promise to not sign a separate treaty. This lead to new agreement between the powers in neutralizing the Italian area for war.  The Austrians knew that on their own they couldn’t resist the French in the area. The French had invested interest in neutralizing northern Italy because that would realize 30,000 troops to march north area of Spanish Netherlands.  When William III heard of this, despite his antagonism for the French, he became an advocate of peace. He knew the Dutch and Spanish troops couldn’t withstand this accretion of these veteran troops to the French fighting in the Spanish Netherlands. So he sanctions the beginning of Peace talks in his own palace in Ryswick near the Hague.  The wider context for this peace was the growing cost of the war. Now the Dutch were more secure in its independence and England was safe from catholic invasion. The House of Commons became tired about the financial aspect of war. So the political Treaty of Ryswick: people from both England and Dutch came out of favor for - September 20, peace. 1697  On September 20, 1697 one of the longest European wars ended - Signed between signed by France, Spain and the maritime states. France, Spain and  Leopold followed at the end of October and also signed the the Maritime states - Emperor Leopold treaty.  What was remarkable the scale of French concessions made for also signed by Peace. october  They gave up Breisach, Lorraine and retained Strasbourg and Alsace. They handed Luxemburg back to Spain. Which was stunning because the Spanish had been utterly defeated. If anyone had lost the 9-year war was the Spanish. Their own heartland had been invaded the French in the northeastern city of Barcelona and had been occupied.  There might had been some ulterior motive. The vast kingdom of Spain was about to come up for grabs.  The 9-year war ended with such a settlement was because the Spanish throne was about to be succeeded.  Succession to the Spanish throne. Charles was on his last leg. The French had a powerful claim, the Bourbon to succeed the throne. Louis was married to a Spanish royal member The Making of the European Balance of Power: the origins of the War and the Spanish Succession October 3, 2012 Key words Notes  A war whose outbreak, despite all the best efforts to avoid it- that would give birth to the first functioning international order and restore balance of power to the things in the history of the world.  It was also through this conflict that the world came to see three of Important military the best military leaders. By any definition in the art of warfare. leaders - John hennery Churchill, the Duke of Marlborough - John Churchill- Duke - Prince Eugene of Savoy, a French aristocrat who ended up of Marlborough fighting for the Austrian and Holy Roman empire against his - Prince Eugene of whole country. Savoy  The outbreak of the war despite the common purpose and the best efforts of all powers concerned to avoid that outcome. The stakes are too high and the fears too profound to exercise the specter of war.  The common desi
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