The Diplomatic Revolution
October 10, 2012
Continued- The war of the Spanish Succession
Key words Notes
The French had some hope that the war might never occur, despite the fact
the great windfall of the Spanish inheritance had been as it were awarded
to the one of the Spaniard itself.
Despite this apparent accumulation the excessive strengthen to Frances
wider international position, the bourbon monarchy in France had some
hope that this might provoke some of the other powers to war given the
sudden death of the main architect of the Anti-French coalition
Death of the William III in the spring of 1702, gave some hope to the
Death of William III in 1702 French that the war might still be avoided.
The French thought that in essence, the only foe was William III of England
and the Dutch Republic. With him dead more moderate and more sensibly
council might prevail within Britain and the Dutch Republic and that would
leave Austria isolated and not capable of taking French dilemma on their
In essence the French saw their enemy subjective figure, maybe William III
With the death of William III
the Grand Alliance was thought would have managed to pull off his great diplomatic masterpiece as the
Grand Alliance in 1701 demanding a partition of the goodies in Spain but
to fall apart. William III died. And they were expected to fall apart.
Inside England the act of Succession was passed in 1696 provided for the
Queen Anne smooth legal transition from the death of William III to Queen Anne. Late
- Took the throne after Queen Mary’s sister.
- Sister of Mary Late Queen Mary’s sister, Queen Anne, now became the undisputed the
monarch of Scotland, Ireland and England. A new government of moderate
- Became the Monarch of conservative ministries backed her; who were headed by the lord
England, Ireland, and treasurer Godolphin.
Scotland. Godolphin was the strong man in the new British government. He went
along with Queen Anne’s choice for the key British actor for most of what
- Treasurer who lead the was to become the war of Spanish Succession. He agreed that a strong man,
conservative ministries. a great military commander and a very talented diplomat was needed. And
this was Marlborough.
- Went along with Queens John Henry Churchill- Duke of Marlborough should become Britain’s
choice of choosing Captain General and was appointed the military and the British
Marlborough as the leader ambassador at The Hague as a representative for the Dutch Republic. It
for the Spanish Succession
War. was a key military and diplomatic favor.
Alliance warfare was always about politics. To keep various states
together, ultimately pointing out what they have in common rather then
Marlborough the difference they had. Marlborough was a diplomat of no less important
- John Henry Churchill-Duke of then the genius who he would soon display at the field of battle. Brilliantly
Marlborough endowed and militarily. He was the most apt choice by the trails and
- Diplomat and great
commander who waged the ordeals by the politics to come.
war for the Grand alliance. The House of Commons in their turn indicated that the nation be united
behind them in the war effort. In a loyal address to the new monarch they
- Britain’s Captain general promised they would pursue the war effort against France with utmost
vigor. The loyal House of Common promised Queen Anne that they would
pursue the war effort with her allies’ against the challenge of France and
Bourbon Spain with the utmost vigor. Louis XIV recognition of James The factors that prompted this utmost unity within England were as
III leads to unity among the follows.
British House of Commons and - Recognition of James III as the legitimate monarch of the three
the Queen Anne. Threat was not countries by Louis XIV. He was a Stuart pretender to the British
just political but also religious. throne. This was enough to awake the Protestant fears in all of the
Protestant powers in England. Threat in the Britain, not just
politically but also religiously. It was effecting the largely the land
owning caste and many of them felt like their properties were being
threatened by the Catholic respiration.
Inside the Dutch republic, matters seemed more promising from the point
France miscalculated the of view if Louis XIV. The domestic politics in Dutch took such a turn that it
intentions of the Dutch seemed that they might remain at peace instead of going to war. The
republic because of
- The accumulated debt on - The debt of the head of the House of the Orange
the House of Orange - The anti-monarchial Party- the Republican opposition outside of the
- The rise of the Republican Dutch republic managed to oust orangist politician for most of their
party which was more pro- positions in power. And the Republican Party inside the Dutch
peace Republic was generally Pro-peace party.
The French were stunned to find that Dutch were dedicated to the Grand
Alliance and if necessary a war effort to force a partition of the Spanish
inheritance upon Louis XIV and the Bourbon Spanish Monarch.
Why the Dutch went to war The Dutch had their own vital interest for going to war in May 1702.
against France in 1702 - Feared the Bourbon presence in the Southern Netherlands.
- The Southern Netherlands.
Previously the French had thrown out the border Dutch garrison out
Fear that France might once of the Spanish Netherlands. So the Dutch had their national security
again try and throw out at stake and even the pro-peace party thought that was too vital
their border garrison. interest to leave France uncontested on the battlefield.
- The decisions of Louis to - The main issue, and the reason why there was an Anglo-Dutch
maintain the rights of Phillip alliance despite the loss of a common ruler (William III) was the
to still succeed the throne of
decision of Louis to maintain the rights of Phillip V to descend the
France, despite the French throne under certain circumstances. Even though when he
condition upon which had taken the Spanish throne he had to repudiate the right to the
Phillip had ascended the French throne. Louis however, refused to take this. This is what
throne. This is what the rest scared Europe. The French power, conjoined with Spain would
of Europe really feared. threaten the balance of power. And in the end this might have been
- The fear of an expanded
the key factor for the Dutch to go to war. The nightmare that haunted
France fueled by the Europe was the diffusion of the French power and administrative
resources of the Spanish energy and the Spanish resources. No international system could
imperial inheritance ever emerge or balance of power could function in the shadow of
such bourbon unity-a joint monarchy ruling the continent.
- Cleopatra nose of history: (an example that things can happened
due to a more structured factor or an accident factor. it was the
idea of that the shape of the nose of Cleopatra was attractive. In
its attraction Julius and Mark Anthony would shake the
Mediterranean. And she doomed the Roman republic and the
Roman Empire. So it can be an accidental factor or a more
structured factor that can lead to a bigger event. Or it can be a
mixture of the two. You just have to focus on the casual
hierarchy. It can be an accidental factor or a more structured
factor. (keep this in mind when writing the paper) - Perhaps the fear of France and above al the fear of France expanded
to encompass the huge population with the resources of the Spanish
May 15 1702 Austria, Great imperial inheritance that scared the rest of Europe.
Britain and the United With an impressive show of unity on May 15, 1702 Austria, Great Britain
Provinces of Dutch Republic and the united provinces of the great republic simultaneously declared war
declared war on France. on France.
The Dutch Army
- The Dutch republic was best prepared for the ordeal of the fire to
- 100,000 strong come.
- this massive land army - They rapidly expanded a their land force to an impressive 100,000
came at the expense of the strong. Rose to 130,000 at the peak of the war. Well-equipped force,
naval army which would fight the France.
- This land force came in the expense of the naval power. The Spanish
Succession marks the irretrievable decline of the Dutch Republic as a
major maritime power. They would yield maritime supremacy to the
Britain. They had to invest so much in the land force because it was
all there was between them and the French in the Southern
Netherlands. The great investment in money for the land forces that
it inevitably lead to the reduction in the naval power. And they never
managed to retrieve their naval prominence again.
British Army The British Army
- 60,000 to 70,000 strong - The British had a more modest land force. It is hard to calculate the
hired an additional land force because the British had hired great number of Danish and
100,0000 German mercenaries. They had around 60,000 to 70,000 force and
- 2/3 were almost German or
hired about 100,000 more to fight under the Duke of Marlborough.
Danish mercenaries Mainly German mercenaries and some form Denmark.
- Fought mostly on current - Also managed to subsidies their foreign allies. This was a contrast
revenue from the Dutch on the one side and the British on the other. The
- Provided subsidies for their British managed to pay for the war effort with current taxation. The
allies Dutch had to borrow on a grand scale to finance their ever-growing
war efforts putting them further into debt. But they were fighting
with their allies and countries were willing to help them out. The
British fought on current revenue as compared to the Dutch who
fought more on debt.
Austrian Army The Austrian Army
- Managed to raise an army
around the same size as - The Austrians managed to raise an army around the same size as the
Dutch. Especially the cavalry component.
Dutch (100,000) - This component was the most prominent and aggressive part of their
- But the army was forces they and the wider Austrian war efforts were undermined by
undermined by a rebellion the Hungarian rebellion. Hungry was a smaller province in the
in Hungry Austrian Republic. The French had convinced the Hungarian to rebel
- Had to fight on two fronts-
against French and Germany and many of the cavalry regent in the Austrian army were the
Hungarian people. Now they left the Austrian army and went over
and against the Hungarian the rebels and fought with them.
Rebels. - From 1703 and on the Austrians had to fight on two fronts. Against
the French and the Germans and on the other end the Hungarian
rebels to the east and southeast.
The French Army
- Had about 250,000 standing - Against these somewhat troubled allies, the French had about a
army quarter million strong standing army. The actual number could go up
- Complimented by the to 400,000 and many of those were Peruvian troops. The cutting Spanish army. edge of the French standing army as 250,000 troops for most of the
- So technically it was fighting war.
the war standing alone - This should have been supplemented and complimented by the
against the rest of Europe. Spaniards. However the Philips V contribution was very small. His
- Had an upper hand because force contribution was weak because he had to deal with internal
the occupied the territories rebellion. It was virtually insignificant. Once more, like the Dutch
such as the Spanish war, like the 9-year war, the War of the Spanish Succession
Netherlands, and the Duchy witnessed France standing alone confronting the rest of the Europe.
of Milan. - The French had the upper hand because they occupied the territories
- And they had unified the rest of Europe wanted to invade. The Spanish inheritance, the
command: Louis XIV. Spanish Netherlands, and the Duchy of Milan and so on. Defensive
warfare is easier then offensive warfare. You require fewer forces to
maintain a defense. The French had this advantage of being in
possession of the high ground. A smaller area to move their forces
around, short communication lines and such.
- Of course they enjoyed a unified command. Political and military
leadership was in the hands of one man: Louis XIV
Malborough had diifculites Marlborough, on the other hand, was in constant political negotiation. He
had to negotiate between the different countries and their generals in the
alliances. For example, when the Dutch sent out their army, some Vetoed
over that. So at times, although he enjoyed command of the British and
Dutch armies, it was constant negotiations with the Dutch generals. The
French on the other hand had no such difficulties. They moved in a unified
The Allies shouldn’t have faced victory though. They simply had to follow a
more military mission. Their forces were more divided and one of their
major contributors was fighting on more then one front.
But for one key area, for operational command, the actual military
commander and troops and their movement and their campaign and to
ultimately command in battle to win or lose. As it happened. By a simple
twist of fate, two of the greatest military genius happened to be in the main
Two of the greatest military command for the Grand alliances.
commanders during the - Duke of Marlborough (John Henry Churchill): proved to be in battle
Spanish Succession war: the greatest land warrior that British produced. A genius of art of
- Duke of Marlborough warfare.
- Prince Eugene of Savoy. - Prince Eugene of Savoy: The case of Eugene of Savoy is even more
singular or interesting, because he was a Frenchman. His mother had
fallen out of the French family and it was clear to her that her son
would never prosper in the French in the service of Louis XIV. He
tried to enter the army but was refused due to the feud with the
bourbon. He therefore, offered his abilities to the Holy Roman
Empire. His great military ability, especially as a Calvary commander.
He was the effective leading commander for the Austrians. He
formed a partnership with Marlborough. They both defeated France
Dutch caution did not score any important victories for the first couple of
years of war. For this reasons the French were able to go into the offensive
into Germany. They were not content with defending their stronghold.
They moved into the offensive in Germany.
By the spring 1704 they had Austria in a pickle. The Hungarian rebellion
was flaring to the east and to the west a French invading the army, allied with the forces of maximilian of Bavaria, threaten to invade the heartland
and capture the capital city of the Austrian Empire-Vienna.
Marlborough realized what was happening and in 7 of march 1704 he
wrote to Antony Heinsius of Dutch- “if England and Holland do not assist
the empire (Holy Roman Empire) by sending in an army the whole Empire
might be undone” meaning the whole Austrian, German system was up for
being invaded by the French.
The Dutch still refused to sanction the dispatch of their vital land force
With the Austrian fighting on form their boarder to far off Southern Germany to save the neck of the Holy
two fronts, they were loosing Roman Empire. And so it was up to Marlborough itself to come to the
bad to the French. So rescue of the Habsburg Empire.
Marlborough was afraid that He did this in part by lying and cheating the Dutch and deceiving the
the French would lose the Holy French.
Roman Empire so he asked for
Marlborough was able persuade the Dutch to sanction move of his army to
the help from Dutch. But the the Rhine. He marched his army down the Rhine land. But unknown to him,
Dutch were not willing. So 7 of the most sophisticated set of basses, (his agents had gone before to
Marlborough bought it on secure the infantry structure to ensure that his army could embark of a
himself to deal with it. great march.) Great march of 250 miles right to the river Danube. Where
they could try to conjoin the forces of Eugene of Savoy and fight a battle
that would determine the fate of Austrian empire
Not stopping as he had promised, Marlborough carried on deep into the
heartland of Southern Germany. And managed to join up with the forces of
Marlborough’s effort to pave a great army, by providing them food, and
inspiration to fight and his ability to keep men together, ensured that his
great army arrived ready to fight. 1/3 English, the rest Danish and German-
professionally molded under his command. They conjoined with the forces
of Eugene of Savoy in Southern Germany, which is no harm because two
French armies along the Bavarian also managed to pull their resources.
By 13 august 1704 both sides were ready to battle near the small village
on the Danube.
- There two armies about 60,000 strong faced on another.
- The conjoined forces of Marlborough and Eugene faced the army of
French commander Tillard and Marshall Marsin and Maximilian of
Military tactic of Marlborough
and Eugene during the battle in - Now what Marlborough perceived to do was by giving masterpiece
of linear battle or full frontal assault. In those days armies marched
Blenheim. in thin lines. The lines would be 3-5 miles long facing one another
latterly. They stood about 90 paces away and blasted away at one
another. It was extremely difficult for the commander to see what
was going on given the length of the line. All you could depend on
was the messages from the couriers running back and forth. What
you can see here is that Marlborough applied pressure all along the
front and especially in the Flanks. Eugene’s attack was to fix the
forces of Marsin and Maximilian in place. He didn’t expect Eugene to
break through. Equally his powerful plow against Blenheim was
Battle of Blenheim:
- Allied forces: Eugene and really meant to fix the forces in places. Even as it happened Tillard to
in effect divert his reinforcements to a threatened clan. And when
Marlborough the center was diluted, Marlborough then threw himself in the center
- French side: Tillard, Marsin, broke. The battle had lasted till midday. The center broke and the
Maximilian. result was extraordinary. A French army of 60,000. 38,000 were - Used a special tactic which killed or captured or wounded. This was one of the greatest killing
was like a sandwhich field history has ever seen. Europe was electrified and after a biter
- The French were defeated resistance the French gave in. bucking by thousands of them in the
- 30,000 of the French were cramped condition in the village of Blenheim. By fainting the wings
killed, wounded or and maintaining pressure in the center, unleashing a ferocious
captured. combined heavy artillery bombardment and combined a infantry
and Calvary movement, this resulted in a totally new formation in
- What Marlborough did instead was create a military sandwich. A line
of Calvary, two lines of infantry behind them and a line of Calvary in
the back. This resulted in repeated assaults at the French Calvary as
they went on. And once they France people had beat off the Calvary
assaults, the English and German simply opened their ranks and the
infantry poured forward and smashed the center of Tillards army.
- The result was momentous. Austria was saved. Germany became
once more preserved of allied power. The French were forced back
to the Rhine and the Austrians were release to campaign in northern
Italy where the French were running around.
1705 saw some Allied disappointed when the French saw the Dutch
caution once more prevented Marlborough from reaping the real strategic
Battle of Ramilles: dividend, which might have ensued the sweeping victory of Blenheim.
- in 1706 In 1706 once more the allies would turn to the offense. And this time with
- Marlborough repeated his the more powerfully force of Dutch, Austrian, English and mercenary
attack. Didn’t work the first forces. They would battle once more in a place called Ramilles.
time, but did the second - At Ramilles in 1706.
time - When Marlborough repeated this attack. One of his attacks didn’t
- Villeroi: the French work but the other did and it persuaded Villeroi to shore up a
commander collapsing wing and that allowed Marlborough to throw in his army
in the center and once more the enemy disintegrated. Again for
minimal causalities they destroyed the France within the southern
- The way lay open for the invasion of France itself by the allies.
To drive home the triumph of the allies, by 1706, prince Eugene of Savoy
came to rescue to the city of Turin-the capital of the Duchy of Savoy which
had been under prolonged siege by French forces. He came to the aid of
Turin by September 1706. Released by the Spanish Netherlands and the
defeat of the French there. And he utterly routed the French in the battle of
In the end the Allied forces got Turin and Marsin, who was commanding the French was killed in the
what they wanted battle. The quarters were over and Marsin was killed.
- Partition of the Spanish The allies were successful in all their fronts. They had achieved a lot if you
inheritance think of it. They were in possession of Spanish Netherlands. They occupied
- Procession of the Spanish
Netherlands the Duchy of Milan. They had forced a partition of the Spanish empire.
Louis XIV would clearly have no choice by to recognize the allied victory.
- occupied the Duchy of Milan Even though the war ended, with such a victory, in the heat of the battle,
war became inflated. Marlborough and heinsius II argued that there will be
“no peace without Spain” having initially offered promised that they would
recognize Phillip as the King of Spain they wanted to fight the arms to drive
him off the throne of Spain.
This was useful for Charles who now called himself Charles III of Spain. The
holy Roman emperor Leopold had died in 1703, but the new Holy Roman
Emperor Joseph had no problem fighting with France. The more damage done to France the more Spain would be taken away and the throne would
be in Austrian possession with a cousin monarch control of the whole
So now the Austrian, the Dutch decided to go beyond their war. This wasn’t
a cleaver thing to do. “War is a continuation of politics or policy by other
means” a normative statement.
Politics should govern war. The amount of force you use should be
proportional to the political aims you are trying to attain.
War in a sense can become its own justification. The scale of the allies’
victories suggested that they further try to attain more. The peace of Utrecht and the 18 century balance of power
October 15, 2012
Key words Notes
France was in a pickle. Despite its army, military position and ambition
was really on its knees by the fall of 1706. In the Spanish Netherlands,
crushed in the northwestern Italian theater of war.
As a result it appeared that the Allies had achieved their central warring.
The warring of the Grand Alliance, which was to force a partition of the
Spanish inheritance. So as to ensure a restored balance or equilibrium
amongst the state.
Now having won the war in Italy, having expelled French forces along
the Netherlands, having contained them in the Rhine, the Allies were
convinced they had achieved their warring. It appeared that the
Spaniards had to face reality. The Allies were occupying the territories
they were claiming for the Austrian.
The only problem was that passions were aroused and in the flush of
victory warrings became inflated.
- Philosopher of war
- Thought that war should - a philosopher of war. A Prussian soldier and philosopher. He
became a general before he died. In the state of 1830’s he served in
be controlled as an the Prussian army.
instrument of state. - He was aware of that war should be controlled as an instrument of
state. It was a means to an end defined y politicians. Soldiers should
fight as long as necessary to attain those aims and use only as much
force as necessary to achieve them.
- Often quoted “definition of war as a continuation of politics or policy
by other means.
Definition of war: - Said it was a normative statement not a factual one.
continuation of politics and Definition of war: continuation of politics/policy by other means.
policy by other means - The political aim should always govern every military event.
- The amount of force used and the length of time of which it is
In the fall of 1706: the allies became greedy, arrogant and demanded
more. Now the warring was redefined in the words of Marlborough and
Godolphin, “no peace without Spain”. They wanted to drive Phillip off
the throne of Spain. This proved to be political and diplomatic nonsense
because Phillip V had won over the Spanish people.
Support for Phillip in Spain
- People of Spain started - Sole except of the north eastern region of Catalonia.
- Especially in Castile, the heart of Spain. They rallied for their new
supporting Phillip young king as the Allies invaded and they fought back.
- In 1710 when Charles VI - When at one point at during the war the Spanish Pretender to the
captured Madrid and throne in September 1710 Charles VI captured the city of Madrid and
Castile, he was greeted Castile. But as he entered with his victorious army he saw high
with its citizens should
“long live Phillip” crowds of people who were shouting, “Long live Phillip”. Soon
afterwards Phillip would drive him out.
- This was the kind of deal the Allies wanted. Total habituation of the
bourbon France and Spain.
So with littler choice and no sign of moderation, and with no moderate
terms being offered, Louis XIV prepared for some more years of campaign
The Dutch blunder again The Dutch yet against blundered the forces of the Allied forces into
deterred the Allied forces northern France.
from getting into France 1707, the French held their own key cockpit. The Spanish Netherlands.
They managed to out maneuver the half-hearted Allied invasion
attempts out of it.
Battle of Oudenarde In 11 July 1708, in French effort to reinvade the Spanish Netherlands
- July 11, 1708
came to grief at the battle of Oudenarde. it wasn’t a crushing victory for
- The French lost and the the allies but French suffered enough to stream back to France.
allies won - One of the key fortresses was built inside France to defend the road
- The city of Lille fell to the to Paris.
invading Allies leaving the - City of Lille fell to the invading army of the Allies in the fall of 1708.
Road to Paris wide open. Making the road to Paris open for Allied invasion.
Economic loss for France
Bad winter meant less - Louis XIV strategic plight was compounded by one of the worse
revenue for the French which winters Europe ever had in 1708-1709.
resulted in Louis finally seeing - Little money from the sale of their crops which mean little revenue
to the terms of the Allied for the next battle
- Resulting in an economic down turns.
- Now Louis XIV saw the term is the Allies.
At their point of triumph the Allies demand were extreme. They wanted
The demands of the Allies all the territories all by themselves that they occupied or liberated
were extreme. (Spanish Netherlands be awarded to Archduke VI) but they also they
also demanded a total surrender inside Spain. Louis XIV couldn’t do that.
Phillip and his people were willing fight for their international
Louis was so ready to accept Louis XIV recognized his own military weakness and the scale of the
the conditions of the Allies that danger that his own kingdom was up for grabs and vulnerable, and after
he offered financial support to a while he couldn’t afford to not accept the peace terms. So he actually
the Allied war effort to invade
Spain. offered to make a financial contribution to the Allied war effort to invade
Spain and oust his grandson Phillip. This shows how much danger
France itself was in.
Rejected Louis’s offers and Allies, in their arrogance and under the assumption that they would
insisted they join the allies in have total victory rejected this offer and asked them to join the Allies to
invading Spain. defeat Spain. Louis rejected this and reluctantly he made preparations
Louis rejected their offer and for what might France last military campaign as an independent
prepared for battle. He long last overcame his suspicions with Duke Villars. Since he was so
good at battle Louis had suspicions about him. He was put in command
Duke Villars: of the main French field army in the Key Theater of war-The Spanish
- General put in charge by
- He was first suspected of - Villars was now in charge and Louis XIV, remarkably and modestly
appealed to the people directly to rally.
things because - The people rallied
- Although the French army that marched to meet the invaders was
Battle of Malplaquet smaller then the Allied (60,000 as compared to 80,000) it was still a
- September 11, 1709
- Under Villars formidable army commanded by Villars.
- Having maneuvered the Marlborough and Prince Eugene of Savoy
- Highly skilled military and the Dutch into reasonable favorable battleground, Villars
formation decided to risk it all.
- Villars was wounded and - In a place called Malplaquet on September 11, 1709. The battle taken away so his was fought to win back France for Louis XIV or lose it forever.
subordinates backed away - It was a formal afraid between highly skilled military formation and
as well. remark test of will amongst the greatest military commanders that
- Although the clear victors history had ever seen.
were the Allies, France did - Marlborough was impressed at the discipline and unitary under fire
not suffer so much loss. and he said; “French have defended themselves better in this action
- A pyrrhic victory for then in any battle I’ve seen
Marlborough. - As always, Marlborough pressed hard in the flanks of the French and
- 25,000 Allied troops fell. eventually Villars did have to shore up and command in the right
Double the number of the flank. And the
troops of the French army. - The main infantry section under the British began to make some