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HIS103 5. The Diplomatic Revolution.docx

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Denis Smyth

The Diplomatic Revolution October 10, 2012 Continued- The war of the Spanish Succession Key words Notes  The French had some hope that the war might never occur, despite the fact the great windfall of the Spanish inheritance had been as it were awarded to the one of the Spaniard itself.  Despite this apparent accumulation the excessive strengthen to Frances wider international position, the bourbon monarchy in France had some hope that this might provoke some of the other powers to war given the sudden death of the main architect of the Anti-French coalition  Death of the William III in the spring of 1702, gave some hope to the Death of William III in 1702 French that the war might still be avoided.  The French thought that in essence, the only foe was William III of England and the Dutch Republic. With him dead more moderate and more sensibly council might prevail within Britain and the Dutch Republic and that would leave Austria isolated and not capable of taking French dilemma on their own.  In essence the French saw their enemy subjective figure, maybe William III With the death of William III the Grand Alliance was thought would have managed to pull off his great diplomatic masterpiece as the Grand Alliance in 1701 demanding a partition of the goodies in Spain but to fall apart. William III died. And they were expected to fall apart.  Inside England the act of Succession was passed in 1696 provided for the Queen Anne smooth legal transition from the death of William III to Queen Anne. Late - Took the throne after Queen Mary’s sister. William III - Sister of Mary  Late Queen Mary’s sister, Queen Anne, now became the undisputed the monarch of Scotland, Ireland and England. A new government of moderate - Became the Monarch of conservative ministries backed her; who were headed by the lord England, Ireland, and treasurer Godolphin. Scotland.  Godolphin was the strong man in the new British government. He went along with Queen Anne’s choice for the key British actor for most of what Godolphin - Treasurer who lead the was to become the war of Spanish Succession. He agreed that a strong man, conservative ministries. a great military commander and a very talented diplomat was needed. And this was Marlborough. - Went along with Queens  John Henry Churchill- Duke of Marlborough should become Britain’s choice of choosing Captain General and was appointed the military and the British Marlborough as the leader ambassador at The Hague as a representative for the Dutch Republic. It for the Spanish Succession War. was a key military and diplomatic favor.  Alliance warfare was always about politics. To keep various states together, ultimately pointing out what they have in common rather then Marlborough the difference they had. Marlborough was a diplomat of no less important - John Henry Churchill-Duke of then the genius who he would soon display at the field of battle. Brilliantly Marlborough endowed and militarily. He was the most apt choice by the trails and - Diplomat and great commander who waged the ordeals by the politics to come. war for the Grand alliance.  The House of Commons in their turn indicated that the nation be united behind them in the war effort. In a loyal address to the new monarch they - Britain’s Captain general promised they would pursue the war effort against France with utmost vigor. The loyal House of Common promised Queen Anne that they would pursue the war effort with her allies’ against the challenge of France and Bourbon Spain with the utmost vigor. Louis XIV recognition of James  The factors that prompted this utmost unity within England were as III leads to unity among the follows. British House of Commons and - Recognition of James III as the legitimate monarch of the three the Queen Anne. Threat was not countries by Louis XIV. He was a Stuart pretender to the British just political but also religious. throne. This was enough to awake the Protestant fears in all of the Protestant powers in England. Threat in the Britain, not just politically but also religiously. It was effecting the largely the land owning caste and many of them felt like their properties were being threatened by the Catholic respiration. -  Inside the Dutch republic, matters seemed more promising from the point France miscalculated the of view if Louis XIV. The domestic politics in Dutch took such a turn that it intentions of the Dutch seemed that they might remain at peace instead of going to war. The republic because of reason were: - The accumulated debt on - The debt of the head of the House of the Orange the House of Orange - The anti-monarchial Party- the Republican opposition outside of the - The rise of the Republican Dutch republic managed to oust orangist politician for most of their party which was more pro- positions in power. And the Republican Party inside the Dutch peace Republic was generally Pro-peace party. The French were stunned to find that Dutch were dedicated to the Grand Alliance and if necessary a war effort to force a partition of the Spanish inheritance upon Louis XIV and the Bourbon Spanish Monarch. Why the Dutch went to war  The Dutch had their own vital interest for going to war in May 1702. against France in 1702 - Feared the Bourbon presence in the Southern Netherlands. - The Southern Netherlands. Previously the French had thrown out the border Dutch garrison out Fear that France might once of the Spanish Netherlands. So the Dutch had their national security again try and throw out at stake and even the pro-peace party thought that was too vital their border garrison. interest to leave France uncontested on the battlefield. - The decisions of Louis to - The main issue, and the reason why there was an Anglo-Dutch maintain the rights of Phillip alliance despite the loss of a common ruler (William III) was the to still succeed the throne of decision of Louis to maintain the rights of Phillip V to descend the France, despite the French throne under certain circumstances. Even though when he condition upon which had taken the Spanish throne he had to repudiate the right to the Phillip had ascended the French throne. Louis however, refused to take this. This is what throne. This is what the rest scared Europe. The French power, conjoined with Spain would of Europe really feared. threaten the balance of power. And in the end this might have been - The fear of an expanded the key factor for the Dutch to go to war. The nightmare that haunted France fueled by the Europe was the diffusion of the French power and administrative resources of the Spanish energy and the Spanish resources. No international system could imperial inheritance ever emerge or balance of power could function in the shadow of such bourbon unity-a joint monarchy ruling the continent. - Cleopatra nose of history: (an example that things can happened due to a more structured factor or an accident factor. it was the idea of that the shape of the nose of Cleopatra was attractive. In its attraction Julius and Mark Anthony would shake the Mediterranean. And she doomed the Roman republic and the Roman Empire. So it can be an accidental factor or a more structured factor that can lead to a bigger event. Or it can be a mixture of the two. You just have to focus on the casual hierarchy. It can be an accidental factor or a more structured factor. (keep this in mind when writing the paper) - Perhaps the fear of France and above al the fear of France expanded to encompass the huge population with the resources of the Spanish May 15 1702 Austria, Great imperial inheritance that scared the rest of Europe. Britain and the United  With an impressive show of unity on May 15, 1702 Austria, Great Britain Provinces of Dutch Republic and the united provinces of the great republic simultaneously declared war declared war on France. on France.  The Dutch Army Dutch Army: - The Dutch republic was best prepared for the ordeal of the fire to - 100,000 strong come. - this massive land army - They rapidly expanded a their land force to an impressive 100,000 came at the expense of the strong. Rose to 130,000 at the peak of the war. Well-equipped force, naval army which would fight the France. - This land force came in the expense of the naval power. The Spanish Succession marks the irretrievable decline of the Dutch Republic as a major maritime power. They would yield maritime supremacy to the Britain. They had to invest so much in the land force because it was all there was between them and the French in the Southern Netherlands. The great investment in money for the land forces that it inevitably lead to the reduction in the naval power. And they never managed to retrieve their naval prominence again. British Army  The British Army - 60,000 to 70,000 strong - The British had a more modest land force. It is hard to calculate the hired an additional land force because the British had hired great number of Danish and 100,0000 German mercenaries. They had around 60,000 to 70,000 force and - 2/3 were almost German or hired about 100,000 more to fight under the Duke of Marlborough. Danish mercenaries Mainly German mercenaries and some form Denmark. - Fought mostly on current - Also managed to subsidies their foreign allies. This was a contrast revenue from the Dutch on the one side and the British on the other. The - Provided subsidies for their British managed to pay for the war effort with current taxation. The allies Dutch had to borrow on a grand scale to finance their ever-growing war efforts putting them further into debt. But they were fighting with their allies and countries were willing to help them out. The British fought on current revenue as compared to the Dutch who fought more on debt. Austrian Army  The Austrian Army - Managed to raise an army around the same size as - The Austrians managed to raise an army around the same size as the Dutch. Especially the cavalry component. Dutch (100,000) - This component was the most prominent and aggressive part of their - But the army was forces they and the wider Austrian war efforts were undermined by undermined by a rebellion the Hungarian rebellion. Hungry was a smaller province in the in Hungry Austrian Republic. The French had convinced the Hungarian to rebel - Had to fight on two fronts- against French and Germany and many of the cavalry regent in the Austrian army were the Hungarian people. Now they left the Austrian army and went over and against the Hungarian the rebels and fought with them. Rebels. - From 1703 and on the Austrians had to fight on two fronts. Against the French and the Germans and on the other end the Hungarian rebels to the east and southeast. French Army  The French Army - Had about 250,000 standing - Against these somewhat troubled allies, the French had about a army quarter million strong standing army. The actual number could go up - Complimented by the to 400,000 and many of those were Peruvian troops. The cutting Spanish army. edge of the French standing army as 250,000 troops for most of the - So technically it was fighting war. the war standing alone - This should have been supplemented and complimented by the against the rest of Europe. Spaniards. However the Philips V contribution was very small. His - Had an upper hand because force contribution was weak because he had to deal with internal the occupied the territories rebellion. It was virtually insignificant. Once more, like the Dutch such as the Spanish war, like the 9-year war, the War of the Spanish Succession Netherlands, and the Duchy witnessed France standing alone confronting the rest of the Europe. of Milan. - The French had the upper hand because they occupied the territories - And they had unified the rest of Europe wanted to invade. The Spanish inheritance, the command: Louis XIV. Spanish Netherlands, and the Duchy of Milan and so on. Defensive warfare is easier then offensive warfare. You require fewer forces to maintain a defense. The French had this advantage of being in possession of the high ground. A smaller area to move their forces around, short communication lines and such. - Of course they enjoyed a unified command. Political and military leadership was in the hands of one man: Louis XIV Malborough had diifculites  Marlborough, on the other hand, was in constant political negotiation. He had to negotiate between the different countries and their generals in the alliances. For example, when the Dutch sent out their army, some Vetoed over that. So at times, although he enjoyed command of the British and Dutch armies, it was constant negotiations with the Dutch generals. The French on the other hand had no such difficulties. They moved in a unified manner.  The Allies shouldn’t have faced victory though. They simply had to follow a more military mission. Their forces were more divided and one of their major contributors was fighting on more then one front.  But for one key area, for operational command, the actual military commander and troops and their movement and their campaign and to ultimately command in battle to win or lose. As it happened. By a simple twist of fate, two of the greatest military genius happened to be in the main Two of the greatest military command for the Grand alliances. commanders during the - Duke of Marlborough (John Henry Churchill): proved to be in battle Spanish Succession war: the greatest land warrior that British produced. A genius of art of - Duke of Marlborough warfare. - Prince Eugene of Savoy. - Prince Eugene of Savoy: The case of Eugene of Savoy is even more singular or interesting, because he was a Frenchman. His mother had fallen out of the French family and it was clear to her that her son would never prosper in the French in the service of Louis XIV. He tried to enter the army but was refused due to the feud with the bourbon. He therefore, offered his abilities to the Holy Roman Empire. His great military ability, especially as a Calvary commander. He was the effective leading commander for the Austrians. He formed a partnership with Marlborough. They both defeated France together  Dutch caution did not score any important victories for the first couple of years of war. For this reasons the French were able to go into the offensive into Germany. They were not content with defending their stronghold. They moved into the offensive in Germany.  By the spring 1704 they had Austria in a pickle. The Hungarian rebellion was flaring to the east and to the west a French invading the army, allied with the forces of maximilian of Bavaria, threaten to invade the heartland and capture the capital city of the Austrian Empire-Vienna. th  Marlborough realized what was happening and in 7 of march 1704 he wrote to Antony Heinsius of Dutch- “if England and Holland do not assist the empire (Holy Roman Empire) by sending in an army the whole Empire might be undone” meaning the whole Austrian, German system was up for being invaded by the French.  The Dutch still refused to sanction the dispatch of their vital land force With the Austrian fighting on form their boarder to far off Southern Germany to save the neck of the Holy two fronts, they were loosing Roman Empire. And so it was up to Marlborough itself to come to the bad to the French. So rescue of the Habsburg Empire. Marlborough was afraid that  He did this in part by lying and cheating the Dutch and deceiving the the French would lose the Holy French. Roman Empire so he asked for  Marlborough was able persuade the Dutch to sanction move of his army to the help from Dutch. But the the Rhine. He marched his army down the Rhine land. But unknown to him, Dutch were not willing. So 7 of the most sophisticated set of basses, (his agents had gone before to Marlborough bought it on secure the infantry structure to ensure that his army could embark of a himself to deal with it. great march.) Great march of 250 miles right to the river Danube. Where they could try to conjoin the forces of Eugene of Savoy and fight a battle that would determine the fate of Austrian empire  Not stopping as he had promised, Marlborough carried on deep into the heartland of Southern Germany. And managed to join up with the forces of Eugene.  Marlborough’s effort to pave a great army, by providing them food, and inspiration to fight and his ability to keep men together, ensured that his great army arrived ready to fight. 1/3 English, the rest Danish and German- professionally molded under his command. They conjoined with the forces of Eugene of Savoy in Southern Germany, which is no harm because two French armies along the Bavarian also managed to pull their resources.  By 13 august 1704 both sides were ready to battle near the small village on the Danube. - There two armies about 60,000 strong faced on another. - The conjoined forces of Marlborough and Eugene faced the army of French commander Tillard and Marshall Marsin and Maximilian of Bavaria. Military tactic of Marlborough and Eugene during the battle in - Now what Marlborough perceived to do was by giving masterpiece of linear battle or full frontal assault. In those days armies marched Blenheim. in thin lines. The lines would be 3-5 miles long facing one another latterly. They stood about 90 paces away and blasted away at one another. It was extremely difficult for the commander to see what was going on given the length of the line. All you could depend on was the messages from the couriers running back and forth. What you can see here is that Marlborough applied pressure all along the front and especially in the Flanks. Eugene’s attack was to fix the forces of Marsin and Maximilian in place. He didn’t expect Eugene to break through. Equally his powerful plow against Blenheim was Battle of Blenheim: - Allied forces: Eugene and really meant to fix the forces in places. Even as it happened Tillard to in effect divert his reinforcements to a threatened clan. And when Marlborough the center was diluted, Marlborough then threw himself in the center - French side: Tillard, Marsin, broke. The battle had lasted till midday. The center broke and the Maximilian. result was extraordinary. A French army of 60,000. 38,000 were - Used a special tactic which killed or captured or wounded. This was one of the greatest killing was like a sandwhich field history has ever seen. Europe was electrified and after a biter - The French were defeated resistance the French gave in. bucking by thousands of them in the - 30,000 of the French were cramped condition in the village of Blenheim. By fainting the wings killed, wounded or and maintaining pressure in the center, unleashing a ferocious captured. combined heavy artillery bombardment and combined a infantry and Calvary movement, this resulted in a totally new formation in warfare. - What Marlborough did instead was create a military sandwich. A line of Calvary, two lines of infantry behind them and a line of Calvary in the back. This resulted in repeated assaults at the French Calvary as they went on. And once they France people had beat off the Calvary assaults, the English and German simply opened their ranks and the infantry poured forward and smashed the center of Tillards army. - The result was momentous. Austria was saved. Germany became once more preserved of allied power. The French were forced back to the Rhine and the Austrians were release to campaign in northern Italy where the French were running around.  1705 saw some Allied disappointed when the French saw the Dutch caution once more prevented Marlborough from reaping the real strategic Battle of Ramilles: dividend, which might have ensued the sweeping victory of Blenheim. - in 1706  In 1706 once more the allies would turn to the offense. And this time with - Marlborough repeated his the more powerfully force of Dutch, Austrian, English and mercenary attack. Didn’t work the first forces. They would battle once more in a place called Ramilles. time, but did the second - At Ramilles in 1706. time - When Marlborough repeated this attack. One of his attacks didn’t - Villeroi: the French work but the other did and it persuaded Villeroi to shore up a commander collapsing wing and that allowed Marlborough to throw in his army in the center and once more the enemy disintegrated. Again for minimal causalities they destroyed the France within the southern Netherlands. - The way lay open for the invasion of France itself by the allies.  To drive home the triumph of the allies, by 1706, prince Eugene of Savoy came to rescue to the city of Turin-the capital of the Duchy of Savoy which had been under prolonged siege by French forces. He came to the aid of Turin by September 1706. Released by the Spanish Netherlands and the defeat of the French there. And he utterly routed the French in the battle of In the end the Allied forces got Turin and Marsin, who was commanding the French was killed in the what they wanted battle. The quarters were over and Marsin was killed. - Partition of the Spanish  The allies were successful in all their fronts. They had achieved a lot if you inheritance think of it. They were in possession of Spanish Netherlands. They occupied - Procession of the Spanish Netherlands the Duchy of Milan. They had forced a partition of the Spanish empire. Louis XIV would clearly have no choice by to recognize the allied victory. - occupied the Duchy of Milan  Even though the war ended, with such a victory, in the heat of the battle, war became inflated. Marlborough and heinsius II argued that there will be “no peace without Spain” having initially offered promised that they would recognize Phillip as the King of Spain they wanted to fight the arms to drive him off the throne of Spain.  This was useful for Charles who now called himself Charles III of Spain. The holy Roman emperor Leopold had died in 1703, but the new Holy Roman Emperor Joseph had no problem fighting with France. The more damage done to France the more Spain would be taken away and the throne would be in Austrian possession with a cousin monarch control of the whole Spanish inheritance.  So now the Austrian, the Dutch decided to go beyond their war. This wasn’t a cleaver thing to do. “War is a continuation of politics or policy by other means” a normative statement.  Politics should govern war. The amount of force you use should be proportional to the political aims you are trying to attain.  War in a sense can become its own justification. The scale of the allies’ victories suggested that they further try to attain more. The peace of Utrecht and the 18 century balance of power October 15, 2012 Key words Notes  France was in a pickle. Despite its army, military position and ambition was really on its knees by the fall of 1706. In the Spanish Netherlands, crushed in the northwestern Italian theater of war.  As a result it appeared that the Allies had achieved their central warring. The warring of the Grand Alliance, which was to force a partition of the Spanish inheritance. So as to ensure a restored balance or equilibrium amongst the state.  Now having won the war in Italy, having expelled French forces along the Netherlands, having contained them in the Rhine, the Allies were convinced they had achieved their warring. It appeared that the Spaniards had to face reality. The Allies were occupying the territories they were claiming for the Austrian.  The only problem was that passions were aroused and in the flush of victory warrings became inflated. Clausewitz  Clausewitz: - Philosopher of war - Thought that war should - a philosopher of war. A Prussian soldier and philosopher. He became a general before he died. In the state of 1830’s he served in be controlled as an the Prussian army. instrument of state. - He was aware of that war should be controlled as an instrument of state. It was a means to an end defined y politicians. Soldiers should fight as long as necessary to attain those aims and use only as much force as necessary to achieve them. - Often quoted “definition of war as a continuation of politics or policy by other means.  Definition of war: - Said it was a normative statement not a factual one. continuation of politics and  Definition of war: continuation of politics/policy by other means. policy by other means - The political aim should always govern every military event. - The amount of force used and the length of time of which it is applied.  In the fall of 1706: the allies became greedy, arrogant and demanded more. Now the warring was redefined in the words of Marlborough and Godolphin, “no peace without Spain”. They wanted to drive Phillip off the throne of Spain. This proved to be political and diplomatic nonsense because Phillip V had won over the Spanish people. Support for Phillip in Spain - People of Spain started - Sole except of the north eastern region of Catalonia. - Especially in Castile, the heart of Spain. They rallied for their new supporting Phillip young king as the Allies invaded and they fought back. - In 1710 when Charles VI - When at one point at during the war the Spanish Pretender to the captured Madrid and throne in September 1710 Charles VI captured the city of Madrid and Castile, he was greeted Castile. But as he entered with his victorious army he saw high with its citizens should “long live Phillip” crowds of people who were shouting, “Long live Phillip”. Soon afterwards Phillip would drive him out. - This was the kind of deal the Allies wanted. Total habituation of the bourbon France and Spain.  So with littler choice and no sign of moderation, and with no moderate terms being offered, Louis XIV prepared for some more years of campaign  The Dutch blunder again  The Dutch yet against blundered the forces of the Allied forces into deterred the Allied forces northern France. from getting into France  1707, the French held their own key cockpit. The Spanish Netherlands. They managed to out maneuver the half-hearted Allied invasion attempts out of it.  Battle of Oudenarde  In 11 July 1708, in French effort to reinvade the Spanish Netherlands - July 11, 1708 came to grief at the battle of Oudenarde. it wasn’t a crushing victory for - The French lost and the the allies but French suffered enough to stream back to France. allies won - One of the key fortresses was built inside France to defend the road - The city of Lille fell to the to Paris. invading Allies leaving the - City of Lille fell to the invading army of the Allies in the fall of 1708. Road to Paris wide open. Making the road to Paris open for Allied invasion.  Economic loss for France  Bad winter meant less - Louis XIV strategic plight was compounded by one of the worse revenue for the French which winters Europe ever had in 1708-1709. resulted in Louis finally seeing - Little money from the sale of their crops which mean little revenue to the terms of the Allied for the next battle forces. - Resulting in an economic down turns. - Now Louis XIV saw the term is the Allies.  At their point of triumph the Allies demand were extreme. They wanted  The demands of the Allies all the territories all by themselves that they occupied or liberated were extreme. (Spanish Netherlands be awarded to Archduke VI) but they also they also demanded a total surrender inside Spain. Louis XIV couldn’t do that. Phillip and his people were willing fight for their international independence.  Louis was so ready to accept  Louis XIV recognized his own military weakness and the scale of the the conditions of the Allies that danger that his own kingdom was up for grabs and vulnerable, and after he offered financial support to a while he couldn’t afford to not accept the peace terms. So he actually the Allied war effort to invade Spain. offered to make a financial contribution to the Allied war effort to invade Spain and oust his grandson Phillip. This shows how much danger France itself was in.  Rejected Louis’s offers and  Allies, in their arrogance and under the assumption that they would insisted they join the allies in have total victory rejected this offer and asked them to join the Allies to invading Spain. defeat Spain. Louis rejected this and reluctantly he made preparations  Louis rejected their offer and for what might France last military campaign as an independent sovereign state? prepared for battle.  He long last overcame his suspicions with Duke Villars. Since he was so good at battle Louis had suspicions about him. He was put in command  Duke Villars: of the main French field army in the Key Theater of war-The Spanish - General put in charge by Louis. Netherlands. - He was first suspected of - Villars was now in charge and Louis XIV, remarkably and modestly appealed to the people directly to rally. things because - The people rallied - Although the French army that marched to meet the invaders was  Battle of Malplaquet smaller then the Allied (60,000 as compared to 80,000) it was still a - September 11, 1709 - Under Villars formidable army commanded by Villars. - Having maneuvered the Marlborough and Prince Eugene of Savoy - Highly skilled military and the Dutch into reasonable favorable battleground, Villars formation decided to risk it all. - Villars was wounded and - In a place called Malplaquet on September 11, 1709. The battle taken away so his was fought to win back France for Louis XIV or lose it forever. subordinates backed away - It was a formal afraid between highly skilled military formation and as well. remark test of will amongst the greatest military commanders that - Although the clear victors history had ever seen. were the Allies, France did - Marlborough was impressed at the discipline and unitary under fire not suffer so much loss. and he said; “French have defended themselves better in this action - A pyrrhic victory for then in any battle I’ve seen Marlborough. - As always, Marlborough pressed hard in the flanks of the French and - 25,000 Allied troops fell. eventually Villars did have to shore up and command in the right Double the number of the flank. And the troops of the French army. - The main infantry section under the British began to make some
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