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HIS103 6. The Seven Years War.docx

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University of Toronto St. George
Denis Smyth

The Seven Years War Key words Notes  The pracmatic sanction tried to solve the problem of the Austrain Succrion prior to the rise of the problem itself  The reason why th epragmatic sanction even came inot being was because Cahrles VI had no male heir. The only heir avaible was a female-maria thereaa  All the powers were wiling to accept the pragmati sanction.  Kaunatiz got all the… and allow the agreed succession of AMria Theresea as the monarch of Austria  This was an impressive sanction. It showed the dregee of conceses of mutual respect aboard in the system. Enring its survval.  There was little that could upturn the system. It proved trong even agsint comprising the system  The ultimate test of a system is to absorve new comers. This is the test of the survivability of the system. To acomadate change.  Without such an eleastic capacity to accomdate the rise of the inceasing powers and to make way for the decline of the weakening powers the system becamse too brital to susrve  Had Charles VI ied suddentl ovtober 1740, hardly had he been succeeded, according to the pragamatic sanction, a challenger power posed a severe schallnege to tis viability and its surivival.  This great power would put the sustem under create system and strain and provide it with a ciritcal test of its ability to accept new states.  The power was Prussia. - medium siized german state - not really signifincant - It was generall a greay additional power to allies, but hardly a heavy weight. - It was a peculiar state to make a bid for great powerdom, because it didn’t posses the necceaey creditainal - Its territories were widely spread. There was no heartland. - It lacked that pysical sysbatnave that required for powerdom - Its population was small, near the eastern lands, and they were quite poor. They didn’t really generate a lot of - Prussia had one assets hich it gained few months before maria threasea ascended her throne in may 1740 Fredrick II - He inherted from his father, Fredrick I, in the etablishment of an anrmy which Fredrick called him self formidable and murderous. - Prussia, by heavy peaseant population, eastern and central Europe, by effeicnt organizztion of resources they deployed sizeable forces. - 140,000 strong. It moved rapidly, it was well trained, and well dicpline. They were able to fire their muskets 3 times faster then their enemy. - One of his future, during the 7 year wars described Prussia in these words, “ Prussia is not a country that has an army, an army which has a country.” - That was its sole plain to grace. It was its sole creditional to power. Fredrck knew it in his bones knew that military machine could be aciebced through terriotial gain and taxing their new population  December 1740, the Prussian simply smashed their way in and grabed the Province of Silesia form Austria monarch Maria Thrisea  An yet he had indulged his military ambition in that regard h eprocedded to limit the political fallout. He imeditly offered compenstioan for taking seilisa. He offered to support her rule her other territories with the help of Prussian army. And that Francious, her husband would become the Holy Roman Empire  Kuantiz and the Austrian council was angry. They said that the other powers had the right to withdraw from the Pracmatic Sanction and start looking for their own goods  The Wisdoms of Fredrick collided in april 1741? Mollwitz - Mollwitz: first war of the 7 year war - He paniced and wanted to abdomed the batte field. The Prussian won the battle, but no thanks to Fredrick - Atill even with that victory under hus belt he didn’t attempt to expand his warring - The continual rfual of the Austrain made him make an alliance - Alliance with French in June 1741 - He was careful to preserve Prussian the right to make a unilateral peace with Austran. - October 1741 he concluded an armtice with Austrain in the Treaty of Breslau - Byt that sessian the Purssian population had double the size of Austrain. It had increased by 50%. - It befitted Geographcaill, polically, financially and militartly. - It is true that late 1744-1745 was the secondd Silesian war.  Second Silesian War 1744-1745 - he was lured int battle because the felt that his hold on Silesia was become weak because Austrai along with their Saxon allies - the Austrain fortune of war was suffienct of Bavaria. - He occupied bohemia. Seizned the capital city ofPrague. - With his hold of silezia threated by the Austrain victory in Prague. - Main Austrian ally was Brtain and they hated the French so they ut peasure on - Treaty of Dresden: Silesia was succeded once and all to the Austrains.  In way Fredricks behaviour was nice  And yet the danger with such a power making a bid for great powerdom is that when it resorts to war, when it attacks an existing member of the international system, it starts quickening the pulse amongst the other international policy makers.  As the other powers looked on to Austria’s defeat and its position in battle, they began to think of the advangtages they would have if they got involved. - Count de Belle Isle - Louis VI was a young monarch and increasingly irriated by the restrain by the policy council Cardinal Fluery. - What Belle Isle argued that Austria’s difficulty was French victory. - Inevitably, a young ambitious monarch fell to Belle Isle advice that this was the chance to seize an austrain..? - The French proceeded to 1741/ - The army carried out before them. They achieced victories that even Louis XIV couldn’t have thought of. - Invaded, prauge and ented - Winter of 1741-1742 it looked like that Austrain monarchy was doomed. They even voted Charles of Bavaria would - Franco-Bavaria arms - There was the real danger that could be caused by even a locally confined troublemaker in a system. -  If it true that the subejctove ambitioin of Fredrick the Great was comppunded by Belle isle then that internatioal order was not without its resources. The objective factors that called it inot the play in the first place now swung into a powerful military response agasint Frendrc and Belle isle,  The balance of power was a mere name and one had to ignre it if they wanted to ignore it if the wanted to achieve great things.  It only achineved practial reality that powers regarded as to their advantage as repcted and applied it.  You did suit the intrest of the powers.  They had to resuce Austria in order to restore the destruction of another power because it was a guanretee for their own long term goal.  Safety in organized number.  The objective factors that called to resuse Austrains were: - terbulant Hungarian subjects. Provided 20,000 men that saved the austrain monarchy for the winter of - the one power which had done so much to built the system, foreign secrarty Carteret, the suruval of Austrai was key to the survial of Britain itself. He persuaded the English monarch to enter the war. Hanover GerogeI II ran up a large army of meancy in dettingen june 1743. They routed an dsmahed them - in norhterwestern italty here cartert went over to eSavoy the allied seize. There was a danger . - the frehcn were irssitable in the Austrain Neatherlands. - By late 1747 he stood on the boarder of dutch and the Austrai - In april 1747 they had declaired war on the Dutch republic. - With the allies triumph in german a balbace was resasserting itsef - The economic tol was being felt in Britain and France. the starvation in 1747 that not only the French poepel, but also to louis th atpeace was vital - The French financial minister marshall said that they were on the brankrupt with the loss of the custm recupt - 43 million pounds = british people . 30 million pf that 43 million had to be borrowed. Nritian couldn’t afford to pay out of current revenue.  The dutch could only be saved by peace.  The peace negotiations began. They rapidally reach a climax with a show of moderatuoin og all concern. The peace tr
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