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Topic 16 Nazi Topic 16 Nazi

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University of Toronto St. George
Vasilis Dimitriadis

Topic 15 The Rise of Nazi &Appeasement  NAZI’s rise -- The National Socialist German Workers’Party – Hitler promised EVERYTHING to EVERYONE; -- Hitler argued: -- Germany did not lose WWI; Germany was stabbed in the back; -- Hitler blamed in on Jews & German Bolsheviks; (most important opponents of Germany) -- Sent to jail in 1923; wrote Mein Kampf -- New direction of Germany: creation of “Lebensraum” -- Lebensraum: living space; -- Germany needed to grow, not to the west, but to the east; -- The East was occupied by sub-humans; inferior races; (Slavs, Gypsies) -- In fact, the East (Ukraine) has the richest lands in Europe; -- Coincidence: the east was ruled by The Soviet Union; Communists within Germany were Jews; -- These were the objective of his foreign policy until he died; -- 1928 The Second Book: -- Pin down some dates as by what time he should achieve his objective; very tangible; -- Based on these two books, the whole Nazi leadership were brought to trial against humanity;  International background during Nazi -- Germany actually faced quite good situation: -- Russia was backward, weak communist state isolated by Europe; --Austria collapsed; -- German soil and infrastructure were intact; --Allies themselves were bickering over the Treaty of Versailles; -- US pulled out; leaving France and Britain never agreeing on each other; -- Questions for Hitler: What approaches should Hitler take?  Four Stages of Hitler’s foreign policy: 1. Cooperation (from Jan the year he elected to March when he reached total popularity) 2. Limited cooperation; testing of the international system; 3. Increased Testing and Aggression 4. Open aggression;  Stage One: -- First meeting Germany attended under Hitler: disarmament 1933 -- Britain proposed F to cut down to 200,000, raising G to 200,000; parity between G and F; -- Hitler accepted, hoping F would be angry and rejected it, which was exactly what happened; -- France agreed to accept after 4 years of suspension, to see how well G behaved; -- This French rejection was taken advantage of by Hitler; -- Non-Aggression Pact 1934 with Poland, stunning everyone; -- What he wanted was to show his willingness and good cooperation;  Stage Two -- First Test of Hitler: -- 1934 summer there was also a Nazi party inAustria; they too want to establish a dictator state; -- Hitler supported this because he always wanted the bond between Aand G; -- 1934 December coup d’état inAustria, trying to assassinAustria chancellor, though failed; -- This alarmed fascist Italy: --Austria as a buffer zone between Italy and Germany would be eliminated; -- Northern Italy – what Italy gained in TOV would be in danger; -- Treaty signed by B, F, I, keepingAustria independent; -- Hitler backed down, ditchingAustria, not to raise it again; -- The first “test” failed; -- Second Test of Hitler -- June 1935 Hitler approached Br and promised: -- German navy would never surpass 1/3 of the Royal Navy; -- Br accepted, but that means: TOV dismantled; B, I, F alliance dismantled; -- Third Test of Hitler: -- Oct 1935, I decided to manifest Italian great power: attack onAbyssinia (Ethiopia) -- I always lacked recognition as a great power (as it though it was); -- Shortly I defeated Ethiopia; -- First demonstration of the failure of the League of Nation: Only embargo was imposed (not oil, fuel, gun powders, but nail clippers, combs) -- Having seen this failure, Hitler was fully convinced that his chances came;  Stage Three & Four -- Perfect timing: maintaining “guns” and “butter”; -- Re-militarized Rhineland (March 1936): -- No objection from any state; (G did not have enough troops; would not be able to handle B&F); -- Britain founded it justified, not aggressive; France couldn’t do anything without Britain; -- This was an incredible diplomatic victory for Hitler; -- TheAnschluss: -- Feb 1938 demandedAustria to put Austrian Nazi in an important position; -- Refused; Austria was threatened by invasion; --Austria asked I,F,B for help; -- Britain did not object changes to the Eastern settlement unless it’s carried out in peace; -- France could not do anything without Britain; Italy did not response; -- Germany went intoAand unitedA; --Acquisition of Czechoslovakia (Sudeten Land): -- “aircraft carrier for Soviet Russia”: Russia’s foothold; also of inferior race; -- Negotiating & keeping raising the demand, until C got fed up and gave G the pretext of invasion; -- France had a military pact with C; if war was to break out; F and B would have to be involved; -- Chamberlain met Hitler personally 1938 to negotiate; -- Despite that, Hitler issued ultimatum on C; -- Munich Conference 1938 – C was forced to dismantle its own state; no one was ready for war;  The FrenchAppeasement; -- France’s national security depends
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