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HIS103 11. The Awakening of Europe.docx

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Denis Smyth

The Awakening of Europe November 21, 2012  Internal preassures form let and right upon the moderate revolutionaries  They thought that if they could get a militart strong man the state would have the power to s=pust away the royalist form the rifht and the.. from the left  The objective ircumstances called for a miltiart strong man. A temporary dictaro  To show of force to see off theier enemies  What waas unpreditacble was the chracter of the chosen man. They thought it was a temporrt role. A limited run. Their first choice died in the battle field. Second choice, was too radical/concersative. The third choice thgouht he wasn’t cut out for the role. Monoroe, when he heard that bonapatte had returned from Egypt, he persuaded the leaders that bonapoart might th  1799 october 10 when neoploean returned  in france, napoleans return was misunderstood. He was acclamined by large crowds and such. So he found it each enough in novemer to stage the 18 brumaire.  On the night of the 10 of noveber, napolean used force to diperce the boyd of the French legistaive to establish his own counsels.  Instead he seixed the oppuritnity to conlsidate his personal rule. And within a few years he crowned himself the emporar of france.  To concetrate that power, to establish himself in a poltically unchallababge positin, he needed one more victory on the battle. In order to anoint his own rule. So he returned to northern italty, to score a victory over the Austrians, in order to establish his rule inside france  His apoirate for war was so keen he rushed to battle too early. T  Bgan his campaign in april 1800. He crossed the apls with an inadequate force to confront the Austrian in that theather of war. th  In a place of Marengo in 14 of june 1800, he was outgunned and out numbered. Indeed he was in the process of loosin the battle.  The battle of Marengo is lost but we have time to win another one. This gave napolean the chance to stage a dramtic victory and win the battle of Marengo. This was largely due to the sacrefices of his army division.  The Austrian were perduaded into making peace..?  It took one more campaing to push the Austirans into poltical submission. T was conducted by general Maroeau. He won the battle of hohenlinden.  This peace was signed in luneville signed between Austira and Napoleonic France on the 9 of Feburary 1801.  The Russians had already withdrawn. So now Brtain was the only power left. even inside britians legenardry. There was an  Pitt was forced to resgin. The same month the treaty of lunéville.  The toll taken by the war, the economic activity all rested on fragile sutation. This persuaded that ..  On 25 of march 1802, Napoleon the conquere became Napoleon the peacemaker. He conlcuuded a peace with his last enemy in the peace of amien. - conded to france the left bank of Rhine - neatherland and switzerlands.  This seemed a remarkable concesion from the british and clearl they soo came to regeret their concessions in amiens. And war broke out barely after a year after the peace  In a way they seemed to havr come to division of spoils. France was being condede by Britain and domination of the ..?  Of course the reason wy the bargin broke down, barely a year later, it was the british that declared war on France in 1803, because it wanted to secure security and prosperity in europe and the rest of the world.  Napoleon came to realize that that staetic  The british could never secure their maritime commernece, and the expasion of their external empire in various parts of the globe, as long as a block of power, Napoleon, stood on their door steps.  The condition in 1803, of british national secirty was a divided and balanced Europe. Only a divided and balanced euiopre would allow it to wander the globe  Rfom the French point of view it was crazxy to sit on its hands to let british pursued its interst. So French began to flex its muscles afte he signi o gthe peace. To push their inflience and interest further. Moreover, inside france offical and ogvernment controlled newspaper, articles about the frensh resuming their interst in Egypt and other parts of the british empire.  It was suffenect for the brtish to the ned to declare ar on the france, but also Austira and Russia.  The Tsar, Alexander the first, sooned proved himself to be the statesmen of considerable intlect.  By 1803-1804, he realized that the objective threat was posed by Napoleon to Russia nad the rest of the Europe.  By 1805 he decided to  The frenhc attempt  This is how he assessed napolean and the treat he posed.  In 1805 Austria invaded Bavaria, which was allied to Napoleon france.  Napoleon’s grand army was in the wrong place. for two years they had been building power, thrating to invade france.  ----------- INSERT NOTES------------------  devout marched all night and just to meet the.  His force, heavily outnumbered, became …  The Austro-Russians suffered n25,000 causluties.  One exteremly relieved ruler was Fredrick willian III. He was going to join the Austro-Russian alliance, but then at the last minute he joined Napoleon. The French rewarded Fredirick with hanover. The RPssuain King became to realize ..  Prussia was a product of European Balance of Power.  Now if it were collaboratin with a power that was attempted to trying to destroy the balance of power that had created it, it was stupid.  The French demanded concessions in return fot eh Hanover. It asked for economic sanctions agasint britsh  The Prussians realized they were loosung commnerically becase the royal nacy was attacking them.  When Fredrick heard that Napoleon was trying to  1806 on October 1. Fredrick willian III issued a unilateral ultimatiun agasint Napoleon. It must draw its forces or face war with Prussia.  Napoleon was furious. In a campaign lasting only a week, on 14 of October 1806, Napoleon and auerstadt destroyed the Prussian army in jena.  Now Napoleon went after the only state left-Russia.  And so he came to grips wth the main field in 1807. November 24, 2012 Key Words Notes  Over the 18 century, very rarely beaten, the Royal Navy had rarely achieved such a desicive victory ovr its apponant.s  The Royal Navy rarely lost, but for the most part the Royal Navy always fought the opponant to a ..?  It rrely did critical daange  It is surprising in a way because of the power it had over land armies.  These ships were unsinkable. The holes passed through them. Perhaps the most concrete proof of the unsinkablity of the warship came long after the age of sale in thelate usmmmer of 1805. German bomber threw over the ship that carried nelsom.  Just as the 18 century naval architecths had intended high explosiv..?  These were so potnat and unsiale that naval battles were ewon by killing their troops.  On the whole you only won a naval battle by inflicting a desisivve injunry on your enemy.  The firepower was important too.  Napolean army of the north  There wasn’t even so much as concentratin of firepower, it was the speedfouxed on the machines.  Dragging heavy guns around over pre-industrial roads were troublesome and time comsuimg. Nelsons ships sailed with speed.  That movemnt of artillay at sea could be done at 1/5 of the logistoc cost and 5 times the speed.  These were extronary and potnt concetration of firepower.  The question is then, how did this  Firepower nullfiyed mobility  Triple C: jargo for command, control and communitcation  The problem was hpw to command these lethal firepower. The porblm was how co.d you comnnad nad controle them?  The problem was of communication. Ship to ship communication. This was after all, pre-industrial age.  The onlyviabale meathod of communication was flags. Flags run up the mast.  For decades this system f
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