The Awakening of Europe
November 21, 2012
Internal preassures form let and right upon the moderate
They thought that if they could get a militart strong man the
state would have the power to s=pust away the royalist form
the rifht and the.. from the left
The objective ircumstances called for a miltiart strong man. A
To show of force to see off theier enemies
What waas unpreditacble was the chracter of the chosen man.
They thought it was a temporrt role. A limited run. Their first
choice died in the battle field. Second choice, was too
radical/concersative. The third choice thgouht he wasn’t cut
out for the role. Monoroe, when he heard that bonapatte had
returned from Egypt, he persuaded the leaders that bonapoart
1799 october 10 when neoploean returned
in france, napoleans return was misunderstood. He was
acclamined by large crowds and such. So he found it each
enough in novemer to stage the 18 brumaire.
On the night of the 10 of noveber, napolean used force to
diperce the boyd of the French legistaive to establish his own
Instead he seixed the oppuritnity to conlsidate his personal
rule. And within a few years he crowned himself the emporar of
To concetrate that power, to establish himself in a poltically
unchallababge positin, he needed one more victory on the
battle. In order to anoint his own rule. So he returned to
northern italty, to score a victory over the Austrians, in order to
establish his rule inside france
His apoirate for war was so keen he rushed to battle too early. T
Bgan his campaign in april 1800. He crossed the apls with an
inadequate force to confront the Austrian in that theather of
In a place of Marengo in 14 of june 1800, he was outgunned
and out numbered. Indeed he was in the process of loosin the
The battle of Marengo is lost but we have time to win another
one. This gave napolean the chance to stage a dramtic victory
and win the battle of Marengo. This was largely due to the
sacrefices of his army division.
The Austrian were perduaded into making peace..?
It took one more campaing to push the Austirans into poltical
submission. T was conducted by general Maroeau. He won the
battle of hohenlinden.
This peace was signed in luneville signed between Austira and
Napoleonic France on the 9 of Feburary 1801.
The Russians had already withdrawn. So now Brtain was the
only power left. even inside britians legenardry. There was an Pitt was forced to resgin. The same month the treaty of
The toll taken by the war, the economic activity all rested on
fragile sutation. This persuaded that ..
On 25 of march 1802, Napoleon the conquere became Napoleon
the peacemaker. He conlcuuded a peace with his last enemy in
the peace of amien.
- conded to france the left bank of Rhine
- neatherland and switzerlands.
This seemed a remarkable concesion from the british and clearl
they soo came to regeret their concessions in amiens. And war
broke out barely after a year after the peace
In a way they seemed to havr come to division of spoils. France
was being condede by Britain and domination of the ..?
Of course the reason wy the bargin broke down, barely a year
later, it was the british that declared war on France in 1803,
because it wanted to secure security and prosperity in europe
and the rest of the world.
Napoleon came to realize that that staetic
The british could never secure their maritime commernece, and
the expasion of their external empire in various parts of the
globe, as long as a block of power, Napoleon, stood on their
The condition in 1803, of british national secirty was a divided
and balanced Europe. Only a divided and balanced euiopre
would allow it to wander the globe
Rfom the French point of view it was crazxy to sit on its hands
to let british pursued its interst. So French began to flex its
muscles afte he signi o gthe peace. To push their inflience and
interest further. Moreover, inside france offical and ogvernment
controlled newspaper, articles about the frensh resuming their
interst in Egypt and other parts of the british empire.
It was suffenect for the brtish to the ned to declare ar on the
france, but also Austira and Russia.
The Tsar, Alexander the first, sooned proved himself to be the
statesmen of considerable intlect.
By 1803-1804, he realized that the objective threat was posed
by Napoleon to Russia nad the rest of the Europe.
By 1805 he decided to
The frenhc attempt
This is how he assessed napolean and the treat he posed.
In 1805 Austria invaded Bavaria, which was allied to Napoleon
Napoleon’s grand army was in the wrong place. for two years
they had been building power, thrating to invade france.
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devout marched all night and just to meet the.
His force, heavily outnumbered, became …
The Austro-Russians suffered n25,000 causluties.
One exteremly relieved ruler was Fredrick willian III. He was
going to join the Austro-Russian alliance, but then at the last
minute he joined Napoleon. The French rewarded Fredirick
with hanover. The RPssuain King became to realize .. Prussia was a product of European Balance of Power.
Now if it were collaboratin with a power that was attempted to
trying to destroy the balance of power that had created it, it
The French demanded concessions in return fot eh Hanover. It
asked for economic sanctions agasint britsh
The Prussians realized they were loosung commnerically
becase the royal nacy was attacking them.
When Fredrick heard that Napoleon was trying to
1806 on October 1. Fredrick willian III issued a unilateral
ultimatiun agasint Napoleon. It must draw its forces or face war
Napoleon was furious. In a campaign lasting only a week, on
14 of October 1806, Napoleon and auerstadt destroyed the
Prussian army in jena.
Now Napoleon went after the only state left-Russia.
And so he came to grips wth the main field in 1807.
November 24, 2012
Key Words Notes
Over the 18 century, very rarely beaten, the Royal Navy had
rarely achieved such a desicive victory ovr its apponant.s
The Royal Navy rarely lost, but for the most part the Royal
Navy always fought the opponant to a ..?
It rrely did critical daange
It is surprising in a way because of the power it had over
These ships were unsinkable. The holes passed through
them. Perhaps the most concrete proof of the unsinkablity of
the warship came long after the age of sale in thelate
usmmmer of 1805. German bomber threw over the ship that
Just as the 18 century naval architecths had intended high
These were so potnat and unsiale that naval battles were
ewon by killing their troops.
On the whole you only won a naval battle by inflicting a
desisivve injunry on your enemy.
The firepower was important too.
Napolean army of the north
There wasn’t even so much as concentratin of firepower, it
was the speedfouxed on the machines.
Dragging heavy guns around over pre-industrial roads were
troublesome and time comsuimg. Nelsons ships sailed with
That movemnt of artillay at sea could be done at 1/5 of the
logistoc cost and 5 times the speed.
These were extronary and potnt concetration of firepower.
The question is then, how did this Firepower nullfiyed mobility
Triple C: jargo for command, control and communitcation
The problem was hpw to command these lethal firepower.
The porblm was how co.d you comnnad nad controle them?
The problem was of communication. Ship to ship
communication. This was after all, pre-industrial age.
The onlyviabale meathod of communication was flags. Flags
run up the mast.
For decades this system f